Urbanization, sanitation and education have positive effects on health status [58] that mitigate the crude death rate. Int J Med Pharmaceutical Sci. Particles in the air, based on their chemical composition, can also have a direct impact of being separated from climate change. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Industrial pollution has many adverse consequences on human health and may be a cause of death because of respiratory, lung and cardio-related diseases (see [12, 13, 17,18,19,20,21,22,23]; and [24], among others). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00878-9. [42] and Im et al. According to estimates from the American Lung Association, nearly 134 million people are at risk due to air pollution [13].

The impacts on health can be so severe that they lead to death; nearly 7 million people die every year from the interaction of fine particles in polluted air (Goal- 3 of SDGs, [3]). Quantitative analysis of air pollution and mortality in Portugal: current trends and links following proposed biological pathways. CAS However, in the previous studies, the importance of sanitation facilities on death rate in terms of a panel of most industrialised countries has been ignored. A massive amount of gaseous emissions are produced from generators along with heating which affect the climatic condition at the large scale [4]. Ezeh et al. Modified Wald statistics for groupwise heteroskedasticity will be used to see the existence of heteroscedasticity in the data set [69]. Environ Sci Pollut Res. Google Scholar. Volcanic eruption disperses an enormous amount of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere along with ash and smoke particle sometimes causes the temperature to rise up over the years. Because these gases are able to absorb radiation from the sun, they have a direct impact on the temperature of the planet. Asian Development Pol Rev. Coker ES, Cavalli L, Fabrizi E, Guastella G, Lippo E, Parisi ML, et al. Are Londons New Cycle Lanes Bad For The Environment? Evidence from the worlds most industrialised countries. Environ Res. Shan A, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Chen X, Li X, Wu H, et al. BMC Public Health They either change the composition or size and may deplete the nutrients biosphere, damage crops, and forests and destroy cultural monuments such as monuments and statues. Values of carbon monoxide (CO) were in the range of 0mg/Nm3 in CT-Tex to 4903mg/Nm3 in HS-Tex. Industrial stack points were also analyzed with reference to clean air for smoke opacity (%). *Address all correspondence to: muhammad.zubair@uog.rdu.pk. Global environmental pollution is largely a result of peoples activities through urbanization, industrialization, large-scale petrochemical use, power generation, heavy industry, and mining and exploration, all of which adversely affect the health of local communities through their working and residential actions [4, 5]. Licensee IntechOpen. Evidence from the worlds most industrialised countries, $$\mathrm{HO}=f\left(\mathrm{HI}\right)$$, $$\mathrm{HO}=f\left(\mathrm{Environmental},\mathrm{Economic},\mathrm{Social}\right)$$, $$\mathrm{HO}=f\left(\mathrm{Environmental},\mathrm{Economic},\mathrm{Healthcare},\mathrm{Social}\right)$$, $${\mathrm{DEA}}_{\mathrm{it}}={\beta}_1+{\beta}_2\mathrm{CO}{2}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_3{\mathrm{GDP}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_4{\mathrm{PHY}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_5{\mathrm{WAT}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_6{\mathrm{SAN}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_7{\mathrm{SCH}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_8{\mathrm{URB}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\varepsilon}_{\mathrm{it}}$$, $${\mathrm{DEA}}_{\mathrm{it}}={\beta}_1+{\beta}_2{\mathrm{NIT}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_3{\mathrm{GDP}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_4{\mathrm{PHY}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_5{\mathrm{WAT}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_6{\mathrm{SAN}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_7{\mathrm{SCH}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_8{\mathrm{URB}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\varepsilon}_{\mathrm{it}}$$, $${\mathrm{lnDEA}}_{\mathrm{it}}={\beta}_1+{\beta}_2\mathrm{lnCO}{2}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_3{\mathrm{lnGDP}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_4{\mathrm{lnPHY}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_5{\mathrm{lnWAT}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_6{\mathrm{lnSAN}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_7{\mathrm{lnSCH}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_4{\mathrm{lnURB}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\varepsilon}_{\mathrm{it}}$$, $${\mathrm{lnDEA}}_{\mathrm{it}}={\beta}_1+{\beta}_2{\mathrm{lnNIT}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_3{\mathrm{lnGDP}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_4{\mathrm{lnPHY}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_5{\mathrm{lnWAT}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_6{\mathrm{lnSAN}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_7{\mathrm{lnSCH}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\beta}_4{\mathrm{lnURB}}_{\mathrm{it}}+{\varepsilon}_{\mathrm{it}}$$, $$CD=\sqrt{\frac{2T}{N\left(N-1\right)}}\ \left({\sum}_{i=1}^{N-1}{\sum}_{j=i+1}^N\sqrt{T_{ij}{\hat{p_{ij}}}^2}\right)$$, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11217-6, https://sciencing.com/examples-secondary-pollutants-5314906.html, https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-3-good-health-and-well-being.html, https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-819001-2.00021-8, https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2020-co2-emissions.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-020-00892-6, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.02.006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105030, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-018-0430-1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indic.2019.100015, https://doi.org/10.1142/s0217590820430043, https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2018-105059, https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2019.1612042, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109551, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-020-00847-1, https://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1288/2013/10/PGDA_WP_49.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217614, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2016.08.002, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-015-0087-y, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.05.019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142473, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)11281-5, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-1983-8, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-12975-2019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-020-00486-1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110315, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00878-9, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-020-00892-w, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2020.102316, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11368-w, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09774-1, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11293-y, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12554-0, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12473-0, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08167-8, https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840412331313521, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2019.09.029, https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X0700700301, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2654-2, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.04.015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.059, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04317-9, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3992-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.365, https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X0100100108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.09.025, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJESM-04-2014-0002, https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.107.2019.73.209.218, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0718-7, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf, https://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/12881, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/. Google Scholar. Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content: Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. 2001;1(1):1014. All the findings are consistent theoretically, and have empirical implications as well. For the industrial combustion system carbon dioxide was also examined a major greenhouse gas [7]. The above model investigates individual health outcome at the micro level. Oxides of nitrogen are produced by the reaction of free oxygen and nitrogen of air which achieved at high temperature during combustion process. New to VOC Control Technology? PubMed In this perspective, a concrete policy venture for generating abundant physician numbers and ease access to them to protect human health is essential. Environ Sci Pollut Res. These are: Volatile organic compounds, known as VOCs, are airborne pollutants that may cause both short and long-term health conditions in humans. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v9i1.1370. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwk016. Environmental Science and Pollution Research Published.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.365. Human sources of methane include public solid waste landfills coal mine paddy fields oil and gas drilling, pastures rising main sewers, wastewater treatment plants, manure management and agricultural products. Similarly, important air pollutants emitted from power station are particulate matter (fly ash and soot) oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO) and sulfur oxides (SO3 and SO2) [16, 17]. In this regard, effective pollution disposal facilities should be introduced and technology should be developed to convert industrial wastages into fresh materials and polluted smoke into clean air. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. 2014;4(9):105. Industrial pollution is considered to be a detrimental factor for human health. Many living and non-living sources emit carbon dioxide that contribute largely as pollutant. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.02.006. document.getElementById( "ak_js_2" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); The CMM Group is committed to providing personalized, expert advice and competitively priced solutions for your VOC air pollution control, industrial wastewater treatment, and curing and drying equipment needs including Thermal Oxidizers, Energy Recovery Systems, Vacuum Evaporators and Crystallizers, Conveyor or Batch Ovens and Dryers, and Ancillary Systems and Components. [53, 54] for South Asian countries; Mehmood et al. Renew Sust Energ Rev. and factories, electric power plants, etc. As humans that are exposed to air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution among others, we also face an increased risk of falling victim to illness and disease. As an example rapid industrial expansion is China. Qiu J, Ma Q, Wu L. A moving blocks empirical likelihood method for panel linear fixed effects models with serial correlations and cross-sectional dependences. These organic chemicals can originate from a variety of operations, with two of the most common being paint and adhesive manufacturing. Article Lu Z, Bandara JS, Paramati SR. Impact of sanitation, safe drinking water and health expenditure on infant mortality rate in developing economies. The presences of heteroscedasticity, serial correlation and cross-sectional dependence in panel data have serious problems for econometric analysis. Grossman M. On the concept of health capital and the demand for health. Table5 reports the results of PCSE. Energy Pol. Therefore, this study adopts Hoechles [60] procedure of the STATA xtscc program that produces Driscoll and Kraays [38] standard error technique for linear panel models. The average values obtained from the product of independent variables and residuals is the first step.

[49] obtained the statistically insignificant impact of the air pollution on cardio-respiratory mortality in Hong Kong. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), poor outdoor air caused 4.2 million premature deaths in 2016, of which about 90% were in third world countries. [27] and Cheng et al. The effects of energy use on infant mortality rates in Africa. (2018). Carbon constituted fossil fuels produces carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons whereas NOx a combination of nitrogen and oxygen gases produced at high temperature. Specific industrial sectors with greenhouse gas mitigation potential include cement manufacturing, metal production, refineries, pulp and paper mills, and chemical manufacturing [68]. Countries all over the globe have commitments to limit carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases in the light of Paris Agreement [53, 54] banning hydrophobic hydrocarbons (HFCs) other than chlorofluorocarbon CFCs [55]. In addition to these general categories, various manufacturing industries also have opportunities to improve energy efficiency. [30] found that access to sanitation facilities reduced infant, child, and maternal mortality for 136 UN member countries and for 193 countries, respectively. 2019;26(9):883846. Therefore, minimisation of industrial pollution should be the topmost policy agenda in these countries. Data source for these countries: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files, https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/indicators/NV.IND.MANF.CD/rankings, Gillespie, C. (2019). Rahman, M.M., Alam, K. & Velayutham, E. Is industrial pollution detrimental to public health? However, Farahani et al. However, the environmental agencies provide a guidance document on energy efficiency which begun to address regulatory barriers to improving thermal efficiency [69]. The first and second models consisted of CO2 emissions and Nitrous oxide emissions, respectively. According to the Department of Energy, the combined energy projects are the main source of greenhouse gases reduction. Different greenhouse gases contribute differently in global warming due to their unique physical and chemical properties, molecular weight and the lifetime in the atmosphere. Our obtained results confirm this proposition empirically. https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-3-good-health-and-well-being.html. Article The policy implication of this study is that the mitigation of industrial pollution, considering other pertinent factors, should be addressed appropriately by enunciating effective policies to reduce the human death rate and improve health status in the studied panel countries. Shifting to low-carbon fuels from high-carbon can be comparatively cost-effective principle to reduce the emissions of gaseous because this enhance the efficiency of combustion and reduce the amount of pollutants. Hence our study is comprehensive and explores a vital issue in relation to both the environment and human health. However, the most dangerous emissions generated by industrial operations can be divided into three categories. 2020;57(4):151341. Toxic materials and gases are burned and released into the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and methane. Access to clean water facilities can also influence the mortality rate (see [14, 16, 27, 30, 31], among others). Our hunger for natural resources such as wood, coal and oil means that we are endangering many species as we go searching for it. Siddique HMA, Kiani AK. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-1983-8. Our data are unbalanced due to the unavailability of all data for the entire period for all sample countries. The mean and median values of CO2 emissions are 21.80 and 21.16, respectively. Leogrande S, Alessandrini ER, Stafoggia M, Morabito A, Nocioni A, Ancona C, et al. 2019;16(21):4148. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214148. The policy implication of this study is: the mitigation of industrial pollution, considering other pertinent factors, should be addressed appropriately by enunciating effective policies to reduce the human death rate and improve health status in the studied panel countries. Article 2020;66(02):43555. Smoke opacity of industrial gas is also a parameter which has considerable potential to enhance environmental air pollution by smoke particles emission. Greenhouse gas emissions from various sources have led to climate change, which has been accompanied by an increase in greenhouse gases [22, 23]. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. First, it is one of the best techniques if there is any scope of heteroscedasticity, cross-sectional dependency and serial correlation in the data [64,65,66]. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Demography. [27] for 136 UN member countries. Farahani M, Subramanian SV, Canning D. Short and long-term relationship between physician density on infant mortality: a longitudinal econometric analysis. The results show that the null hypothesis of cross-sectional dependence is rejected at the 1% statistical significance level for all variables used in this study implying that there is strong evidence of the presence of cross-sectional dependence. In the same way, Muldoon et al. Using annual data of 60years (19602019), an unbalanced panel data estimation method is followed where (Driscoll, J. C. et al. Therefore, minimisation of industrial pollution should be the topmost policy agenda in these countries. Get in touch with The CMM Group and our team of experienced engineers will be happy to help you out. World Health Organization.

One of the main advantages of taking the logarithm is that coefficient estimates will provide the elasticities directly.