11415). King Tutankhamuns gold mask (Eighteenth Dynasty) offers a spectacular support for the text of chapter BD 151, a spell dedicated to the mummy mask called the mysterious head. The magnificently preserved golden chapels of Tutankhamun also bear excerpts of the Book of the Dead and were nested over the kings coffins. London: Kegan Paul International.
Jrgens, Peter 2001 Zum berlieferungsgeschichtlichen Zusammenhang der Sargtextsprche 335 und 397. Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur 29: 11138. THE DEATH OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD compositions, including Pyramid Texts, Coffin Texts, Book of the Dead, Books of the Netherworld, and Books of the Sky reappearing in the tombs of these eras. Quaegebeur, Jan 1984 Schemanefer. Lexikon der gyptologie 5: p. 575. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. Each workshop was associated with its own tradition, and these are respectively identified as the BM10086 (Papyrus BM EA 10086), the N3152 (Papyrus Louvre N 3152), the N3079 (Papyrus Louvre N 3079), and the N3089 (Papyrus Louvre N 3089) Traditions each named after a significant document produced in its respective workshop and representing its tradition (fig. pd The sequence of these benefits mirrors the daily circuit of the sun god, beginning with the perpetual adoration of Re from dawn to sunset, as well as free egress for the deceaseds ba from the horizon a reference to the tomb while enjoying the refreshing breeze of the north wind. 2337. Seldom did the resulting text make any sense. 15 15, OIM E10486A, lines 120, BD 1 249 oi.uchicago.edu D. 13324 BOOK OF THE DEAD: BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT 15, OIM E10486A, lines 2042, BD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15a 250 oi.uchicago.edu D. 13324 CATALOG NO. Over fifty examples of this text are known, mostly inscribed on papyri, and labels on many of them refer to them each as a Document of Breathing. This label is yet another generic term applied widely across funerary literature of the time. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. Epigraphic Survey 1963 Medinet Habu VI. The powerful ones on their portals pacify you, they prepare your way in the netherworld, Osiris of the scribe Djehutymes, justified. No. For kings of this period, no Book of the Dead papyri have been identified (with two exceptions, the Book of the Dead papyrus of Pinudjem I, and a Book of Caves papyrus found in the Tomb of Amenhotep II, but that did not FIGURE 12.1. Similar to what Herodotus had only alluded to in the case of the sacred lake rites in Sais, there is evidence of the dramatic reenactment of mythical events during the procession (fig. In that regard, it may not be a coincidence if chapter BD 167 is to be used when a man is in a really bad spot (T. Allen 1974, p.217). 15 15, OIM E10486C, lines 134155, BD 17 257 oi.uchicago.edu D. 13326 BOOK OF THE DEAD: BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT 15, OIM E10486C, lines 155177, BD 17 258 oi.uchicago.edu D. 13326 CATALOG NO. Lilyquist, Christine 2003 The Tomb of Three Foreign Wives of Tuthmosis III. 4243) and other funerary compositions from the Greco-Roman repertoire.
Yet, at this time, a new, somewhat standardized text appears written in Demotic (fig. The deceased king is equated not only with Osiris but with a wide range of traditional deities, both male and female, as well as divine birds (PT 626, 668, 682) and stars (PT463, 466, 571, 676). But W. recognized it! Durable ritual objects were sought after, with the result that fragile material such as unbaked clay was abandoned in some cases for a more solid one, like the baked clay bricks found in some private tombs. 18971913 Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Archaeological evidence seems to support this as some of the earliest known attestations of BD spells are on heart scarabs from the First Intermediate Period (see Chapter 2). It is possible that one of them represents Djehutymes because a primary goal of the Book of the Dead is to help the deceased join the solar-Osirian cycle. 71). The vignette of this spell, commonly placed on Ptolemaic linen strip amulets, was included in longer Book of the Dead manuscripts in earlier times, suggesting its basically funerary character. Basel: Orientverlag. The phraseology of such texts was inspired by the standard religious literature of the time, but each individual text contained its own set and oi.uchicago.edu BOOK OF THE DEAD: BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT FIGURE 12.6. 8.2; de Cenival 1992, p. 109). Thus spells repeatedly open by hailingO Osiris King so-and-so (PT 25, 27, 28, 38, 4749, 5759, 6171, etc. As the plural designations suggest, Books of the Netherworld and Books of the Sky are rough categories that encompass many individual compositions, including the Book of What is in the Netherworld otherwise known by its Egyptian name as the Amduat (my.t-dw.t), Book of Gates, Book of Caverns, Book of Caves, Book of the Earth, Book of Nut, Book of the Day, Book of the Night, Book of the Heavenly Cow, the Litany of Re, and others. 15). 253372. No single author is probably responsible as the ancient conception of authorship differed from ours. 8.1). Hornung, Erik 1979 Das Totenbuch der gypter. 22).
Chegodaev, M. A. On Crowleys relationship with Battiscombe Gunn and Gunns interest in esotericism generally, see Vinson and Gunn 2014). FIGURE 9.7. Similarly BD 26 and 27 are paired together, with the four sons of Horus presented in profile, an arrangement in some later Memphite documents. 6 Description Registration Number Papyrus Gardiner III E17550 Funerary Figure of Amunirdis Funerary Figure of Queen Nitocris Statue of Osiris Heart Scarab Inscribed with BD 30B in Hieroglyphs Heart Scarab Statue of Horus E18236I Cat. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. 12021, and 266, no. No. At first sight, judging by the kind of vignettes accompanying the text (a triad of armed hybrid figures and the scene of the final judgment) and layout of the fragment, one may think that we are dealing with a late specimen of the Book of the Dead. She appears most often along with Isis as the quintessential mourning women who wail on the behalf of the dead in their mummified guise as Osiris. Miatello Luca 201213 Ptolemaic Mummy Masks with Spells from the Book of the Dead Concerning the Head. Journal of the Society of the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 39: 5185. Traduction complte daprs le papyrus de Turin et les manuscrits du Louvre.
Oriental Institute Publications 34, 49, 64, 67, 73, 81, 87. An excellent example of this practice is the papyrus of Henutmehyt from the Nineteenth Dynasty found wrapped around her mummy (Taylor 2010a, p. 47; see also Albert and Gabolde 2013). Temporal information is not provided by the papyri, but niches had to be prepared before the decoration of the tomb in order to hide them under the walls plaster. 2005 The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. As such, the left to right orientation of the drilled hole in OIM E18776 is exceedingly rare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Ptolemaic papyrus Milbank (Cat. The various rituals fulfilled different functions, sometimes stated quite explicitly. And then came the writing! While small scarabs worn as jewelry or used as seals were typically pierced lengthwise in order to mount on GILDED HEART SCARAB INSCRIBED WITH BD 30B IN HIEROGLYPHS Green stone, gold Egypt Gift of the Art Institute of Chicago, 1950 New KingdomLate Period, Dynasty 1926, ca. Gift of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 18978. 4.2) 157 oi.uchicago.edu BOOK OF THE DEAD: BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT FIGURE 13.15. For Farr, among the most important facts about the Book of the Dead was the insight it gave into the human heart: In the same way the Ab (will) (i.e., b in current conventional transliteration) or Red Vessel of the Heart is represented in the Book of the Dead as containing an egg, and a concave germ: when this concave germ is developed by cultivation the real life and full development of the Ego could begin, that is to say the Ka could progress in its celestial evolution, just as the body could progress in its terrestrial evolution. Referring to the nocturnal performance of the gods sufferings, which the Egyptians call the mystery-rites on the sacred lake at Sais, the historian, who had travelled Egypt in the fifth century bc, added: Although I am familiar with the details of this performance and how each part of it goes, I will keep silence (II.171; Waterfield 1998/2008, p. 164).
3950. Having appeared as a living god and having shined as the ennead in the sky, I have reached the pool of righteousness. The largest papyrus copies of the Book of the Dead were immense grimoires of magical knowledge containing up to 165 individual spells. The common factor uniting these customs together is the proximity of the papyrus to the body, a practice continued when papyri were placed in wooden containers positioned on or near the coffin. Masks of later dates additionally record spell 162, for providing heat under the head, also popularly inscribed on hypocephali, or decorated disks that were placed under (or near) the head of a mummy (Miatello 201213, pp. Rather, they were clearly following an unusual sequence that is evident in several other documents. One of these tombs FIGURE 10.4. 1960 Albert, Florence 2012 Amulets and Funerary Manuscripts. In Grenzen des Totenbuchs. 664610 bc H: 24.5 x W: 58.5 x D: 9.5 cm Field Museum of Natural History T2003.1.28 This limestone block derives from the north section of a niche along the west wall of a room in the rockcut tomb of the vizier Bakenrenef (L 24) at Saqqara. 5177. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Willems, Harco 1988 Chests of Life: A Study of Typology and Conceptual Development of Middle Kingdom Standard Class Coffins. fs 29. 6.6) appears in eight different temples, in several cases more than once (fig. She wears a horned crown with a sun disk that was adopted from the cow goddess Hathor and a vulture headdress associated with the goddess Mut both emphasize her maternal role. THE RITUAL CONTEXT OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD FIGURE 6.9. The arms were crossed over the chest; although often interpreted 1, front as a sign of royalty, this arm position could be taken by private individuals as well. 5). In the Book of the Dead Isis primarily plays a supporting role of facilitating the rebirth of Osiris and the deceased, and protecting him/her in the netherworld. Moreover, Re, Atum, Shu, and Tefnut, as well as other primordial gods, may be represented among the judges in the vignette, as for instance in the already mentioned papyrus of Ani. Many passages from the Book of the Dead focus on the sun god, on his theology, and the deceaseds apotheosis as Re. Do not stand against me as a witness. Aleister Crowley, his wife Rose Kelly, and their daughter Lola in 1910 (after Crowley 1910, backpiece) oi.uchicago.edu BOOK OF THE DEAD: BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT 26th dynasty and the exhibit bore the number 666! A few words from spell 36 are recognizable in the first three columns under the vignette, while the remaining four columns contain spell 37, a spell for repelling the Mr.tysnakes. The latter are two goddesses manifesting as cobras in the vignette of spell 37, since the spell belonged to the thematic group of anti-snake spells in the Book of the Dead (Chapter 11). La ncropole. For us, however, the actual purpose and context of the Liberation upon Hearing is less important than the fact that Evans-Wentz, in editing, interpreting and presenting it to a Western audience, immediately thought to connect it to the Egyptian Book of the Dead. The variant Ha is over you sometimes appears on some bricks instead of the name of the demon Kap-Her the one whose face is hidden. The first occurrence of this variant seems to appear on the western brick of the Apis I, buried under the reign of Amenhotep III (Louvre I.M. Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. This is the case, for instance, of two small ivory palettes in the name of princesses Meritaten (Cairo Museum JE 62079) and Meketaten (Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.7.1295), daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, but also of comparable objects in wood belonging to professionals of artistic production, such as Dedia, the famous chief painter of Amun, in the reign of Seti I (Louvre N 2274), or his colleague, the director of works Amenmose, who was connected to the Deir el Medina crew and its activities in the Valley of the Kings a generation later (Louvre N 3014). A third figure cited by Aston as a close parallel, MMA 25.3.204, is in fact of a completely different type. A passage from the Adventures of Setna and Si-Osire, a Demotic tale from Roman Period Egypt, epitomizes the ancient Egyptian understanding of this tribunal: They went inside the seventh hall. fs published Ritner (forthcoming a) 334 oi.uchicago.edu CATALOG I STATUES AND FIGURES OF DEITIES mages of gods were widespread in ancient Egyptian religious practices and their complexity cannot be easily captured in the restricted space of an exhibit catalog. 2356. 3031). Toward the end of the life cycle of the tradition, the choice of illustrations switched to those used by the BM 10086 and N3152 Traditions. [CDATA[ Stuttgart: Steiner. Couyat, J., and P. Montet 1912 Les inscriptions hiroglyphiques et hiratiques du Oudi Hammmt. Paris: Didot lAn. No. Paris: Louvre ditions. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. (O) you who comes] to assault, I shall not allow you to assault me. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The other gods of the Heliopolitan account of creation, the so-called ennead, are also widely mentioned, namely the air god Shu and his female counterpart Tefnut, the earth god Geb, the sky goddess Nut, Osiriss brother Seth, oi.uchicago.edu BOOK OF THE DEAD: BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT FIGURE 11.1. As a crocodile, Sobek had a rather schizophrenic nature: symbolizing the fecundity of the Nile on one hand and the ferociousness of the crocodile on the other. XIX; T. Allen 1960, pls. They are characterized by an impressive textualization with peculiar variants of spells of the Book of the Dead and a selection of vignettes, according to the so-called Saite redaction en vogue on papyri of this period. Pre-Ptolemaic scribes reworked the Saite text differently: Be you far from me! Miniaci, Gianluca 2010 The Iconography of the Rishi Coffins and the Legacy of the Middle Kingdom. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 46: pp.
The papyrus of Ankhwahibre is an example of classic Saite style showing the illustrations above the corresponding spells below. 13.12), one of the longest and most complete papyri of the Theban Recension. Nagy, Istvn 1999 Mller-Roth, Marcus, and Susanne Tpfer 2011 Das Ende der Totenbuchtradition und der bergang zum Buch vom Atmen: die Totenbcher des Monthemhat (pTbingen 2012) und der Tanedjmet (pLouvre N 3085).