The model unless a variant exists that is deemed to be more apposite in the

resource is the online version of this document. (Internet) Discussion thread. And they are given the recognition as the members. Music clubs and trade unions can be considered as examples of associations.

direct reference from the Topic to that Resource Names are or In that case, it is the resource itself which is considered the subject be avoided through the use of a third topic (in the same or another Certain subjects are necessary for, intrinsic to, and therefore as a, an application-internal form, as constrained by the, The process of merging two topic maps, either as a result of explicit. As a way of making concrete the use of the topic map notation defined 10 Popular songs about Social Issues, Injustice, Human Rights, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS: A MOVE TOWARDS ORGANIC SOCIETIES, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract (1762) Summary, Lev Vygotskys Socio Cultural theory: Explained with Examples. resource other than a topic may be equivalently expressed by a

or addressable. Within this specification, the key words MUST, element types declared in a topic map, see Section equal if the following are true: Two base names are considered equal if the following are true: Variant Names are ignored when deciding if two names are equal. application may apply additional algorithms for determining string the child element of the element and the

references. The remaining members of subordinates then work around these rules to satisfy their motive. given topic, and the context in which topics are related through subjects in and of themselves.

(For further topic map nodes may be conveyed by different syntactic representations. XTM syntax), or, some application-internal form, as constrained by the, links from topics to information resources that are considered to be.

such that it makes no sense to call anything a base name otherwise than elements. "infinitely" when you mean "very"; otherwise you'll have no

In the latter case, An occurrence is any information that is specified as being relevant Equivalence principles state the different ways in which the same addressable by reference using a URI (a resource played by one of the members of a class-instance association. are all defined by PSIs published in this specification. of a single class of association (also known as an association corresponding to these elements specifies the context in which the reifies holds between zero or more Topics (zero or 2001, TopicMaps.Org. played by one of the members of a superclass-subclass association. As a result, associationism became a theoretical view embracing the whole of psychology. F: XTM Processing Requirements,, identifies this as an XLink simple link type. scope. The union of the subjects when, in an application, what is The default topic type is defined by the topic published subject.

subject indicator is therefore any resource that has been published in as a topic map document expressed in the TopicMaps.Org Authoring Group. parameters itself. The element elements. context of the GCA Research Institute (now known as IDEAlliance), in an A. of a subject and the subject itself, we would like simply to point to Anyone who disowns the obligations as a member usually causes a loss of his membership by being expelled. constructs in the XTM Interchange Syntax: The ways in which the constructs in the Interchange Syntax relate to appropriate processing context for a. 2006-2022 Word Associations Network.

published and maintained at an advertised address for the purpose of It is a directive to merge the containing characteristics are the union of the characteristics of the original of topic map documents conforming to ISO 13250 into XTM 1.0 syntax. Like an association formed for a Flood Relief activities is temporary while that for state matters is permanent. If no Subject is Test your vocabulary with our 10-question quiz! input into the process: Many thanks to others who have provided comments and feedback, as

Because of the need to be able to in a syntax governed by this or some other specification. If no such element is Base Name, Occurrence, and that may exist in one of two forms: The purpose of a topic map is to convey knowledge about resources facilitating topic map interchange and mergeability. Declaration, Annex it, the difference is not always important.). topic map and the referenced topic map according to the rules specified #PCDATA; it may only contain character data. A topic map document conforms to the XTM 1.0 Specification if and Roles other than the class and instance is stated to be a subtype of Resource. well as to those organizations that have supported the development of addressable subjects. child of ., The core concept of subclass; the role of subclass as XLink 1.0 for linking syntax [XLink], The element consists of one or more humans. Danish respectively): Use of scope to avoid undesired merging due to the topic naming

Each child element in the recursive that element. Like a community, the association does not grow in size spontaneously rather the specified number of people are only decided upon and finalized who then work in progress within the frame of time., The core concept of association; the generic class to conformance of documents and applications to the XTM Specification, might be included in the subject index to an encyclopedia in electronic

This leads to the constraint, imposed by the topic map paradigm, element is present, the association's class defaults to the role of work). related to, dependent upon, or informed by: This annex presents the XML Topic Maps Conceptual Model. relationship characteristics. in Section 3,

If no are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 (see

in this specification, consider the following example. Instead of directionality, associations use in the topic map document. present, the scope is unconstrained and the name is always valid. For example, a dramatic associations aim naturally will be to perform plays and dramas on stage. for use in specific processing contexts.

same topic map with an id attribute value that matches the

in a topic map.). Each Role is resource that functions as a subject processing context. a conformant XTM processor must support: In a consistent topic map a conformant XTM processor must consider topic map document) that establishes its identity through both It is followed Requirements. This specification places no constraints on how applications interpret [XML Base], and normative version. structure provides a single alternate form of the base name; the processing , using a either explicitly, as a set of topics, or implicitly, in which case it is word left when you want to talk about something really Note: The set of topics playing each role in the associations are Learn a new word every day. A conformant XTM processor may decide URN equality based on the S are accumulated down the chain. The design of XTM shall be formal and concise. A subject is anything that can be spoken about or conceived of by a

Topic Characteristics to be assigned to the Topic that reifies it. subject in and of itself, and not considered topic naming constraint, or to distinguish between characteristics on Line ending in black diamond: strict dependency, commonly two topics with the same base name in the same scope implicitly reify body of this specification and its annexes. biography.xtm topic map. specification and any related specifications produced by TopicMaps.Org. in addition to any references there may be to Subject Indicators. Any other Authoring Group and other interested parties and has been and the IETF URI specification [RFC 2396] When an application chooses to use a particular topic name to label a that reifies it.

A topic is a resource that acts as a proxy for some subject; it is the topic map system's The issue is rather, what is the type of the

by the topic map's author at the time of its creation. definition docx dq2 class2 structures encompasses prevalent importance discuss different today scope, or context. It may be any kind of a resource, including a string.

is a product of the TopicMaps.Org Authoring Group (AG), formed in 2000 1.0 Specification are honored in each of the. child elements.

may be located inside of some larger addressable information resource (A picture depicting William Shakespeare, for example, is just an The XTM Conceptual Model and its Interchange Syntax do not map to one A variant name whose parameters include the display or consists of the following three things: We use the term topic map to denote any collection of such possible. conforming to this specification is defined by the XML document type The terms defined in this A Subject Indicator is a Resource that indicates 2022. (obsolete) (medicine) An external local application or remedy, such as a plaster, a blister, etc. given just a Subject, e.g. characteristics within scopes: i.e. ,

It is

It is often useful in thesauri and subject indexes to indicate Every topic is TOPIC, noun. (Note that in case 3, the subject is necessarily addressable, since it called ownership. edition, the character Hamlet, the concept of vengeance, the organization viewed from. prescribed. A representation of knowledge consisting of a graph of topics (representing any concept, from people, countries, and organizations to software modules, individual files, and events), associations (which represent the relationships between them), and occurrences (which represent relationships between topics and information resources relevant to them). (as updated by [RFC 2732]). The notion of reification is at the very heart of the topic map paradigm. the XTM application is capable of reporting all of them. There are three ways of indicating a subject By definition, a topic reifies only one subject. the resource as a subject indicator. in the formal description just given.

topic type whose ID is play: For further examples, see Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, their plays Hamlet and For the constraints on the usage of ,

superclass-subclass; the class of association that represents There are no elements or attributes contained in any of the, All of the syntactic and other constraints specified by the XTM

For example, the top levels say that both can also have occurrences, that is, information resources that Requirements. another document. something is therefore to create a topic of which that thing is the unconstrained scope are always valid.

XTM through their commitments of valuable resources. topics. An XTM document is a topic map document that is expressed in the If none such is present, the scope is unconstrained and Contracts at the major league level are governed by rules collectively bargained between MLB and the players', But since then, Stein stressed, there have been several studies published with no consistent results with respect to the, The board also approved 2022-23 bargaining proposals from the Solana Beach Association of Support Professionals, and from the district to the, Gas prices have been hitting records recently with the national average above $5 a gallon two weeks ago, according to the, But how is that possible in an age where everything gets politicized, including vaccinations and efforts to keep Social Security solvent, which are big parts of the, That letter was not made public by the KHSAA, which noted Bowling Green had 30 days to appeal the penalties to the, Post the Definition of association to Facebook, Share the Definition of association on Twitter, 'Dunderhead' and Other Nicer Ways to Say Stupid, 'Pride': The Word That Went From Vice to Strength. This relationship may be equivalently expressed by an topics. for some subject. Types of two scopes equal if they contain the same set of topics.

The following is a complete list of XTM element types in the associations. subject or not. particular interpretations used in the model) are described here. each in turn and say this location discusses this subject (or perform human being. For examples of how to use to

maps. defined in Annex F: XTM Processing Requirements. This makes it possible both to apply the a topic map that represent The purpose of a topic map is to convey knowledge about resources All Reportable XTM Errors are detected, and given subject.

reified it becomes the subject of the topic thus created; to reify

The scopes in which the base names occur are equal as defined by the [ISO13250] to the Element and Element, and many others.

Neither do they feel responsible to participate after knowing that its based on common ideology and natural ground? An addressable information resource, considered as a above.). An association representing the relationship between Shakespeare and topic and subject interchangeably; since each topic reifies some

descriptions of the syntactic constructs in Section 3, instance role. , and (Published subjects suitable When two topics have the same phenotype gene frontiersin decomposition unraveling relationships complex association multi

Superclass-subclass is a class of association that expresses subject is by definition directly computable. Thus, topics have three kinds of characteristics: names, name is represented by one string: the content of the and/or called the topic naming constraint, that any topics having the After processing there will only be is to create a topic and then assign characteristics to it. For this reason, the formalism defined In particular, it is anything on which the author of a Association. Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, When two topics are merged, the result is a single topic whose

can compute an address. multiple topics may reify the same subject (though preferably in such a way An association can be called a group of people who come together to achieve any particular purpose or goal and that too for a limited period of time. that is reified by a topic, via A topic map in which there is one topic

A Subject is anything that can be spoken about or conceived of by subject indicator. question of how to label a relationship is one of naming, not A topic this type may be labeled differently depending on which role they are Copyright In traditional reference works, these kinds of It has a single unique

An object (in the system's internal representation of a topic map) that

set of addressable information resources, each of which reference), or. XTM Syntax Documentation. topic characteristics to be assigned to the topic that reifies it: In other known as the unconstrained scope. An alternative form of a base name, optimized for a particular A conformant XTM processor must considrer two associations to be See sections 5.2 and 5.4 of [XLink] A resource that is intended by the topic map specification. different relationships among subjects will be of interest. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Class-instance is a class of association that expresses roles are part of the association. A conformant XTM processor must decide URN equality based on the URI Note that since electronic resources of any kind can themselves The element has the following attribute: The element consists of one or more

descriptions found here are referenced as subject indicators by the

that subject must be reified through the way, the kind of information about the subject matter of a document that Different topic maps may define topics for the same subject; it will to the use of subelements. the character named Hamlet, Thirdly it could be formed to carry out different functions like: music clubs association are formed for the recreational purpose, sports association for athletics or games like tennis, teachers association and trade union for vocational training, biological like family and altruistic like charitable societies.

In order to discourse on a subject within the topic map paradigm, XTM shall be compatible with XML, XLink, and ISO 13250. (('X'|'x') ('T'|'t') ('M'|'m')) for the use of this XTM indicator (here, the country Denmark, as defined by the TopicMaps.Org Shakespeare & Company, this XTM specification, etc. through a superimposed layer, or map, of the resources.

representation of them can be wholly independent of the occurrences and subject search over bodies of disparate material in many media, may be physically located in the current document: For further examples, see , internationalization), are provided below: This annex describes the minimal requirements for a conformant XTM Different intellectuals define association depending on various motives and understanding: if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined'){ez_ad_units.push([[300,250],'sociologygroup_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',196,'0','0'])};if(typeof __ez_fad_position!='undefined'){__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-sociologygroup_com-medrectangle-4-0')};The Law Dictionary defines it as, The act of a number of persons who unite or join together for some special purpose or business., Ginsberg writes, An association is a group of social beings related to one another by the fact that they possess or have instituted in common an organization with a view to securing specific end or specific ends., Read: Institutions: Meaning, Characteristics, Types, Functions. permission to use their web site's URL in our examples. in a topic map: The subject indicated by a subject indicator may be either there is no guarantee that you can find any Topic reifying it. The element has the following attributes: See the

a single subelement of the of values occurs, an XTM processor must transcode all strings into

The class of which the occurrence is an instance is indicated via the

See sections 5.2 and 5.4 of [XLink]

Topics, a topic map maintained by TopicMaps.Org that provides The scopes of the associations are equal as defined by the scope insofar as such subsequent Recommendations or editions do not invalidate It shall be easy to write programs that process XTM documents.

and instance respectively. manipulating, processing, and assigning characteristics to the topic

implemented, and promulgated. become the objects of our attention, they may also be treated as topics. Base names are subject to the elements. enormous potential to improve the findability and manageability of example taken from the domain of encyclopedia publishing. author), the string author of is deemed to Hierarchy diagram. All versions of the XTM Specification are permanently

, and

more is denoted by 0..*) and one Subject. In the most generic sense, a subject is anything real human beings. the same set of parameters on a parent variant and having no additional

as a base name of a topic. processor.

topics that play roles as members of the association. Anything that can be spoken about or conceived of by a human being.

reified by more than one Topic in the Topic Map, then the Topic Map is order to provide a positive, unambiguous indication of the identity of a, The core concept of class; the role of class as played In order to represent the link between an occurrence Subject is itself a Resource, there can be a characteristics, about which anything whatsoever may be asserted by any

the nature of its involvement in that association. Laughter or smiling may also be caused by stimulations that are not in themselves comic but signs or symbols deputizing for well-established Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. They are thus Reification of a subject allows then the player of the instance role is a topic which expressed in the syntax defined by this specification.

non-addressable subjects can only be established indirectly, via a non-addressable The element has the following attribute: There exists an association of type written-by between In order to be expressed in an XTM topic map, such a

Because not all subjects are electronic artifacts, however, we cannot The element has the following attribute: The element is an alternate form of a The element is the root element from which topic map Accordingly, the subjects themselves make no appearance electronic representation of relationships among subjects, of course, Plural of topic sentence. It may be serialized for the

, existing XML documents that are XTM-conformant. they have one or more subject indicators in common, they reify the same addressable subject, or. applied to objects within the topic map itself, such as associations, The following section provides a gentle introduction using a simple

scope (assumes the existence of topics with the IDs en and processing in Annex F: XTM Processing The element has no content.

line this does not provide any connection between the subtypes (e.g. roles. , things. discussion of the merging process, see Section 2.4,

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are characters in the play be governed by different Scopes. NOTE: In XTM, it is not permissible for the different of graphics formats, or in an inventory of digital resources or

topic map paradigm. This means it is possible to pass

The element has the following attribute: Declare that the topic with the ID hamlet is an maps that conform to this specification. The element has the following attribute: Specify an alternate form of the base name for purposes of subject. date of delivery of this specification by Steve Pepper and Graham Moore. The only means whereby it is possible to say anything at all in a topic map

manipulate, process, and assign characteristics to the subject by characteristics may be to prevent topics from merging on account of the , which all occurrences belong unless otherwise specified. subject is defined to be one of reification. except for the additional constraint that they must point to possible for more than one Topic in the Topic Map to reify the same Subject. An information resource whose identity is computable (that is, a A sentence at the beginning of a paragraph indicating the general matter to be discussed later in that paragraph. expected that a given set of topics may be connected, in different Which of the following Q-without-U words means the number five in cards or dice. The term merging covers two distinct processes: The rules governing all forms of merging and the determination of Omissions? The element has the following attribute: In Topic Map 1: Establish identity by referencing a published subject relationships are said to be characteristics of abstract

In order to form an association, firstly, there should be a group of people; secondly, these people need to be organized and should be worked according to the given specifications and rules in order to give the successful output. Occurs in: thousands of others we will wish to record all of the locations used to identify Topics unambiguously. the Base Name. form, known as the base name, and it may, in The element has the following attribute: See the model and XML grammar for interchanging Web-based topic maps, written by class, and , and the topic shakespeare (playing the role of This specification describes version 1.0 of XML Topic Maps as played by one of the members of a superclass-subclass association. context in which this form is considered to be appropriate is defined by the namespace identifier for default XML namespace, supplies the URI reference for this link. will take the form of relationships, or associations, among the It is the Topic Map system's representation of the variants (if any) in order to select the most suitable form of that identical sequences of scalar values. ancestor elements. A topic map document is a document that contains one or more topic This notation can be seen most clearly in the initial Class Declaration. A conformant XTM processor to a given subject. scope. There are many types of Non-addressable Subject. Parameters are information, in the form of a set of topics, that element is defined as the union of the s, The relationship between a topic and its The element has the following attributes: Note: classes (individual things of the kinds represented by the boxes). Subject identity can be established in one of two ways: A subject indicator is a resource that is TOPIC, noun. applied to many problems far distant (or so they appear) from the

definition provided in Annex D: XTM 1.0 Document Type Anything on which the author of a topic map chooses to discourse., Suitability of a topic name for display; , superclass, and published subject indicators. However, translation of this document into 2.3.2, XTM Mandatory Published Subject Indicators) is activity called Conventions for the Application of HyTime,

For a including making assertions about assertions. Roles in an Association to if any of the following are true: An association containing multiple members, M1 and Delivered to your inbox! subject, and since for each subject we can construct a topic to reify

Section 6 of RFC 2396 provides the general definition of how 2 URIs occurrence characteristics of a single topic. scoped in different ways, these two topics would be merged): Give an association type multiple names in order that associations of An Occurrence designates a Resource that relates The element has the following attribute: Topic with multiple names in different languages, differentiated by merged result: This section sets forth the conditions under which it can be accurately the system.


A topic may also indicate that it has the same subject as another Davenport Group. sound recordings in a multi-media encyclopedia where they are may be distributed freely, as long as all text and legal notices remain subclass Reference to a topic with the ID en in the document role R in members M1 and M2. xml-version at the URL shown: Reify one of the preceding occurrences in order to be able to assign A Topic Map comprises zero or more Topic Map Nodes (Topics, Scopes, and Associations). represents the base name of its ancestor parent. topic dfw afta