This type of backup is known as a duplexed backup set. This section contains the following topics: Configuring the Backup Encryption Algorithm. When the parameter is set to TYPICAL, the instance logs buffer cache reads for read/write tablespaces in the redo log, but not read-only tablespaces. This precompression processing stage has the most benefit for data blocks that have been the subject of many deletes and inserts operations. To configure the default backup encryption algorithm: The following example configures the algorithm to AES 256-bit encryption: You may want to set the names of data files in the auxiliary instance when performing operations such as data file tablespace point-in-time recovery (TSPITR) or data transfer with RMAN. If your target database is configured for a shared server, then you must modify your Oracle Net configuration to provide dedicated server processes for RMAN connections. The exclusion condition applies to any data files that you add to this tablespace in the future. The CONFIGURE CHANNEL command is used to configure RMAN channel options. The default value is given in bytes and is rounded down to the lowest kilobyte value. !Please comment here for your any query related to above content. Therefore, we use set new name command. Shadow lost write protection uses shadow tablespaces to store only SCNs for the tracked data files. Startup the database in upgrade mode and start upgrade the database : Run utlrp.sql for validate dba_registry components and Check the Database registries again : I hope my written content will helped you. Enabling lost write detection is also useful when you are not using Data Guard. RMAN respects this limit regardless of the settings that you configure for MAXPIECESIZE. Create one or more shadow tablespaces for shadow lost write protection using the, Enable shadow lost write protection at the required level (database, PDB, tablespace, or data file). If a fast recovery area is configured for a target database, then the default location for the snapshot control file is not the fast recovery area. Start SQL*Plus and then connect using both the shared server and dedicated server service names to confirm the mode of each session. The compression ratio generally increases from low to high, with a trade-off of potentially consuming more CPU resources.

Connection settings for database instances. In this case, you can encounter a lost write in two ways: during normal database operation or during media recovery. Subsequent block reads will return the stale version of the data block, which may be used to update other data blocks, thus corrupting data. Oracle Net configuration varies greatly from system to system. For example, you can exclude testing tablespaces cwmlite and example from whole database backups as follows: If you run the following command, then RMAN backs up all tablespaces in the database except cwmlite and example: You can still back up the configured tablespaces by explicitly specifying them in a BACKUP command or by specifying the NOEXCLUDE option on a BACKUP DATABASE command. Password encryption requires that the DBA provide a password when creating and restoring encrypted backups. 1- Connect to the root container with a common user having SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges, Oracle also recommends to backup sometimes the root container. You do not need to configure an Oracle keystore if password encryption is used exclusively. Limiting the Size of Backup Sets with BACKUP MAXSETSIZE, Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for BACKUP syntax. To guarantee that no lost writes have corrupted the database, you must perform media recovery from database creation, which is not a practical strategy for most database environments. Good combination of compression ratios and speed. RMAN offers the following encryption modes: This is the default mode and uses the Oracle software keystore. This scenario assumes that the following service name in tnsnames.ora file connects to a target database using the shared server architecture, where inst1 is a value of the SERVICE_NAMES initialization parameter: For example, connect with SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privilege to inst1_ded and then execute the following SELECT statement (sample output included): To connect to a shared server session, connect with SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privilege to inst1_shs and then execute the following SELECT statement (sample output included): Your platform-specific Oracle documentation and the Oracle Database Net Services Reference for a complete description of Oracle Net connect string syntax. Shadow lost write protection provides fast detection and immediate response to a data block lost rewrite thereby minimizing data loss and database repair time. Whether you allocate channels manually or use automatic channel allocation, you can use channel commands and options to control behavior. It is safe to back up the Oracle keystore because that form of the keystore cannot be used without the keystore password. Note that while directly connecting to the PDB, we can only backup files belonging to this PDB. Assume that you issue the following commands at the RMAN prompt: The backup of the users tablespace uses the configured SBT channel and the configured default MAXSETSIZE setting of 7500K. The CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM command enables you to configure compression options. By specifying OPTIMIZE FOR LOAD FALSE, RMAN uses additional CPU resources to perform precompression block processing. Use the CONFIGURE command to configure tablespace exclusion. Configure disk channels as follows: Example 6-2 Configuring Channel Parallelism for Tape Devices. Choosing a compression level based on your environment, network traffic characteristics (workload), and data set is the only way to ensure that the backup set compression level can satisfy your organization's performance requirements and applicable service level agreements. The V$RMAN_ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHMS view contains a list of encryption algorithms supported by RMAN. Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for BACKUP and CONFIGURE syntax. Password encryption is useful for backups that are restored at remote locations, but which must remain secure in transit. When a tracked data block is read from disk, shadow lost write protection detects lost writes by comparing the SCN for the block in the shadow tablespace with the SCN of the most recent write in the block being read. Viewing the Configured Location of the Snapshot Control File, Setting the Location of the Snapshot Control File. You can use the CONFIGURE command to persistently configure transparent encryption of backups. When connecting with RMAN to the root container, we can back up one or more PDBs while directly connecting to a PDB, we can only back up this PDB. If the SCN is higher, it detects a lost write on the standby database and throws an internal error (ORA-600 [3020]). The command is as follows, where datafileSpec identifies some data file by its original name or data file number, and filename is the new path for the specified file: For example, you might configure a new auxiliary name for data file 2 as follows: As with other settings, the CONFIGURE command setting persists across RMAN sessions until cleared with CONFIGURE CLEAR, as shown in the following example: If you are performing TSPITR or running the DUPLICATE command, then by using CONFIGURE AUXNAME you can preconfigure the file names for use on the auxiliary database without manually specifying the auxiliary file names during the procedure. About Multiple Copies of RMAN Backups for an overview of duplexed backups, Duplexing Backup Sets to learn how to create duplexed backups, Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for SET syntax. Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for details about configuring the Oracle keystore. If a backup is not a multisection backup, then a backup set always includes a whole data file rather than a partial data file. You can see the current snapshot location by running the SHOW command. The database compatibility level must be 18.0.0 or higher. Data Files are identified by a unique number across the CDB. The default setting is NONE. Best suited for backups over slower networks where the limiting factor is network speed. The BACKUP BACKUPSET command can neither encrypt nor decrypt backup sets. The Oracle Secure Backup media management software is the only supported interface for making encrypted RMAN backups directly to tape. To diagnose the problem, recover the database or tablespace to the SCN of the stale block read, which then generates the lost write error (ORA-752). "About Configuring the Environment for RMAN Backups" explains the basics for configuring RMAN to make backups. 1- Close the PDB to recover, 2- Connect to rman on the root container and issue the restore command, Connect to the PDB and use the RESTORE DATABASE and RECOVER DATABASE commands. In such a situation, you can set PARALLELISM to any value up to the number of devices, in this instance 20. Backup piece size is an issue when it exceeds the maximum file size permitted by the file system or media management software. The backup data is divided between the two tape devices. You can use MAXSETSIZE to specify that each backup set fits on one tape rather than spanning multiple tapes. For example, you can enter one of the following commands: You can disable the exclusion feature for cwmlite and example as follows: RMAN includes these tablespaces in future whole database backups. You can override the configured MAXSETSIZE value by specifying a MAXSETSIZE option for an individual BACKUP command. This behavior ensures that the redo associated with any encrypted backup of a data file is also encrypted. To repair a lost write on a primary database, you must initiate failover to the standby database. You can use the MAXPIECESIZE parameter of the CONFIGURE CHANNEL or ALLOCATE CHANNEL command to limit the size of backup pieces. RMAN can duplex backups to either disk or tape, but cannot duplex backups to tape and disk simultaneously. BACKUP COPIES command to specify how many copies of each backup piece are created on the specified device type for the specified type of file. When you use transparent encryption, you must first configure an Oracle software keystore for each database. Because the Oracle key management infrastructure archives all previous master keys in the Oracle keystore, changing or resetting the current database master key does not affect your ability to restore encrypted backups performed with an older master key. RMAN supports precompression processing and binary compression of backup sets. You have two tape drives and want each drive to use tapes from a different tape media family. When restoring a dual-mode encrypted backup, you can use either the Oracle keystore or a password for decryption. Start RMAN and connect to the target database using the dedicated service name. Dual-mode encrypted backups are useful when you create backups that are normally restored on-site using the Oracle keystore, but which occasionally must be restored offsite, where the Oracle keystore is not available. This chapter describes how to perform setup and configuration tasks. 1- Connect to the root container with a common user having SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges, 2- Connecting to the PDBs with a local user having SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges Create pfile from spfile of 12cR2 database: Change the parameter compatible in the pfile from to : Take full database RMAN backup, archives backup and controlfile backup : Copy backup files and pfile from Source(12c) to Target(19c) : Startup database in nomount stage using pfile : Restore controlfile from controlfile backup and mount the database : Rename redolog files if location is different : Crosscheck backupsets and Catalog the backup location : In my case we restore the database in different location. In which schema do temporary tables go in PostgreSQL. Keystore-based encryption is more secure than password-based encryption because no passwords are involved. This following topics contain additional information about compression: About RMAN Precompression Block Processing. The OPTIMIZE FOR LOAD option controls precompression processing. The following example configures basic compression for RMAN backups.. A data block lost write occurs when an I/O subsystem acknowledges the completion of a block write, but the write did not occur in the storage. This mode uses only password protection. Thanks for sharing Knowledge very Helpful. The default algorithm is AES 128-bit. If some columns in the database are encrypted with Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) column encryption, and if those columns are backed up using backup encryption, then those columns are encrypted a second time during the backup. We have to backup Start RMAN and connect to a target database and a recovery catalog (if used). If you recover a backup made after database creation, you have no guarantee that other stale blocks have not corrupted the database. If you lose your Oracle keystore, then you are unable to restore any transparently encrypted backups.

It is highly recommended that you run tests with the different compression levels on the data in your environment. So for the Backup we can connect either to the root container or directly to the PDB. You can use the command to specify the following: Whether to use transparent encryptions for backups of all database files, Whether to use transparent encryptions for backups of specific tablespaces, Which algorithm to use for encrypting backups. When using a media manager that requires different PARMS settings on each channel. You can also use the MAXSETSIZE parameter on the BACKUP and CONFIGURE commands to set a limit for the size of backup sets. The PARALLELISM setting is not constrained by the number of specifically configured channels. -root pdb If one tape of a multivolume backup set fails, then you lose the data on all the tapes rather than just one. In contrast, you must reissue the SET NEWNAME command every time you rename files. To create dual-mode encrypted backup sets, specify the SET ENCRYPTION ON IDENTIFIED BY password command in your RMAN scripts. Performing RMAN Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery (TSPITR) for more details on using CONFIGURE AUXNAME for TSPITR, Duplicating Databases for more details on using CONFIGURE AUXNAME in performing database duplication. 1-Put the tablespace offline while connecting to the PDB, 2- Connect to the PDB with RMAN and issue the RESTORE TABLESPACE command, 2- Connect to root container and restore the corresponding files (Files can be identified using command REPORT SCHEMA for example), Encore un bilan la hausse pour dbi services, Eine weitere Umsatzsteigerung fr dbi services. The data is never decrypted during any part of the operation. A data block lost write occurs when an I/O subsystem acknowledges the completion of the block write, but the write did not occur in the persistent storage. Sometimes you may want to omit a specified tablespace from part of the regular backup schedule. Use the RATE channel parameter to act as a throttling mechanism for backups. See Oracle Database Licensing Information User Manual for more information about the Oracle Advanced Compression option. RMAN issues an ORA-19919 error if you attempt to create encrypted RMAN backups using a media manager other than Oracle Secure Backup. If you use an auto-login keystore, do not back it up along with your encrypted backup data, because users can read the encrypted backups if they obtain both the backups and the autologin keystore. Upgrade Oracle Database from 12c to 19c using the RMAN backup : In this article we will discuss about how to Upgrade Oracle Database from 12c to 19c using the RMAN backup. Indirect symptoms such as inconsistent tables cannot be unambiguously traced to the lost write. The value set by the CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE command is a default for the given channel. -archived logs Use the, About Configuring the Environment for RMAN Backups, Performing RMAN Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery (TSPITR), Configuring the RMAN Environment: Advanced Topics. About RMAN Channels to learn about channels. Use the PARMS channel parameter to specify vendor-specific information for a media management software. A control file autobackup is never duplexed. When set to FULL, the instance also records reads for read-only tablespaces. To ensure that RMAN does not connect to a dispatcher when a target database is configured for a shared server, the net service name used by RMAN must include (SERVER=DEDICATED) in the CONNECT_DATA attribute of the connect string. When you use the password-based software keystore, the keystore must be opened before you can perform backup encryption. Oracle Database provides two categories of compression algorithms: a default compression algorithm and a group of compression algorithms available with the Oracle Advanced Compression option. The database is in a consistent state, but all data after the RESETLOGS SCN is lost. If the block SCN on the primary database is lower than on the standby database, then it detects a lost write on the primary database and throws an external error (ORA-752). Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference to learn about the CONFIGURE CHANNEL MAXPIECESIZE command. Use password-based encryption only when it is absolutely necessary because your backups must be transportable. To reset the snapshot control file location to the default, run the CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME CLEAR command. Configure specific channels by number when it is necessary to control the parameters set for each channel separately. To configure specific channel parameters: Run the CONFIGURE CHANNEL n command (where n is a positive integer less than 255) to configure a specific channel. For example, you can use SET ENCRYPTION OFF to create an unencrypted backup, even though a database is configured for encrypted backups. The key is stored in encrypted form in the backup piece. This section contains the following topics about advanced channel option: About RMAN Channels for a conceptual overview of configured and allocated channels, Configuring Channels the basics for configuring channels, Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for CONFIGURE syntax. The default location for the snapshot control file is platform-specific and depends on the Oracle home of each target database. Subsequent snapshot control files that RMAN creates use the specified name and path. Optionally, connect to a recovery catalog. Nous proposons nos clients des solutions adaptes et sur mesure grce nos consultant.e.s dont les comptences et connaissances voluent constamment grce la formation continue. To repair a lost write on a standby database, you must re-create the entire standby database or restore a backup of only the affected files. 1- Connect to the PDB with a local user having SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privilege. Encrypted backups are decrypted automatically during restore and recovery, if the required decryption keys are available. This chapter contains the following topics: Configuring Auxiliary Instance Data File Names, Configuring the Snapshot Control File Location, Configuring RMAN for Use with a Shared Server. You can also use the SET ENCRYPTION command to perform the following actions: Override the encryption settings specified by the CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION command. -all pluggable databases Transparent backup encryption supports both the auto-login software keystore and password-based software keystore. RMAN always allocates the number of channels specified in PARALLELISM, using specifically configured channels if you have configured them and generic channels if you have not. When the backup sets are decrypted during a restore operation, the encrypted columns are returned to their original encrypted form. Because BACKUP BACKUPSET copies an already-encrypted backup set to disk or tape, no decryption key is needed during BACKUP BACKUPSET. If you configure specific channels with numbers higher than the parallelism setting, then this setting prevents RMAN from using them. Each configured channel backs up approximately half the total data. The backup is decrypted with keys obtained by a user-supplied password or the Oracle software keystore. To configure the environment so that all RMAN backups are encrypted: At this stage, all RMAN backup sets created by this database use transparent encryption by default.

Transparent encryption is best suited for day-to-day backup operations, where backups are restored to the same database from which they were created. Because the performance of the various compression levels depends on the nature of the data in the database, network configuration, system resources and the type of computer system and its capabilities, Oracle cannot document universally applicable performance statistics. This example sends disk backups to two different disks. Backup options enable you to control aspects such as backup size, backup compression, and backup encryption. Backup sets containing archived redo log files are encrypted if any of the following are true: SET ENCRYPTION ON is in effect when the archive log backup is being created. When backing up to tape, ensure that the number of copies does not exceed the number of available tape devices. Restoring a compressed backup is performed inline, and does not require decompression. RMAN can restore all encrypted backups that were ever created by this database. A tablespace contains temporary or test data that you do not need to back up. When shadow lost write protection is enabled, RMAN checks the blocks being read for lost writes. You set these names before starting the TSPITR or database duplication. The difference is that after you set the AUXNAME the first time, you do not need to reset the file name when you issue another DUPLICATE command; the AUXNAME setting remains in effect until you issue CONFIGURE AUXNAME CLEAR. Better backup compression ratios are achieved by consolidating the free space in each data block, and setting that free space to binary zeroes. You can reset the database master key at any time. Note that starting with Oracle 19c, we can now connect to a recovery catalog when the target database is a PDB. For example, to limit the backup piece size to 2 gigabytes or less, you can configure the automatic DISK channel as follows and then run BACKUP DATABASE: In version 2.0 of the media management API, media management vendors can specify the maximum size of a backup piece that can be written to their media manager. When a standby database applies redo during managed recovery, it reads the corresponding blocks and compares the SCNs with the SCNs in the redo log. If a lost write error is encountered during media recovery, the only response is to open the database with the RESETLOGS option. To use password encryption, use the SET ENCRYPTION ON IDENTIFIED BY password ONLY command in your RMAN scripts. Backin up a whole CDB is like backing up non-CDB database. Ensure that the target database is mounted or open. Shadow lost write protection can be enabled at the database level, PDB level, tablespace level, or data file level. The default algorithm is a standard feature of Oracle Database while the Oracle Advanced Compression option is a separately purchased option. Connect to the root and then use the RESTORE PLUGGABLE DATABASE and RECOVER PLUGGABLE DATABASE commands. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. For example, the default file name on some Linux platforms is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/[emailprotected]. When you use the auto-login software keystore, encrypted backup operations can be performed at any time, because the auto-login keystore is always open. Example 6-3 Configuring Basic Compression for Backup. See the discussion of tuning RMAN's tape backup performance in Tuning RMAN Performance. You can explicitly override the persistent encryption configuration for an RMAN session with the following command: The encryption setting remains in effect until you issue the SET ENCRYPTION OFF command during an RMAN session, or change the persistent setting again with the following command: You can use the CONFIGURE command to persistently configure the default algorithm to use for encryption when writing backup sets. The CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE command limits the size of backup sets created on a channel. Transparent encryption is the default for RMAN encryption. Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide to learn about RMAN backups in an Oracle RAC environment, Example 6-1 Configuring Channel Parallelism for Disk Devices. Encryption is configured for backups of the whole database or at least one tablespace. RMAN cannot connect to a target database through a shared server dispatcher. 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For example, if the default device is SBT and parallelism is set to 3, then RMAN names the channels as follows: RMAN always uses the name ORA_SBT_TAPE_n even if you configure DEVICE TYPE sbt (not the synonymous sbt_tape). If you retained a backup made before the suspected lost write, however, then you can restore this backup to an alternative location and recover it. You can also use the SEND command to send vendor-specific commands to a media manager. Using or not using persistent configuration settings controls whether archived redo log backups are encrypted. Conversely, it has no effect on data blocks that are still in their initial loaded state. In tape backups, it is possible for a multiplexed backup set to span multiple tapes, which means that blocks from each data file in the backup set are written to multiple tapes. This section explains more advanced configuration options. For example, if you back up to 20 different tape devices, then you can configure 20 different SBT channels, each with a manually assigned number (from 1 to 20) and each with a different set of channel options. The following examples show possible duplexing configurations: To return a BACKUP COPIES configuration to its default value, run the same CONFIGURE command with the CLEAR option, as in the following example: If you do not want to create a persistent copies configuration, then you can specify copies with the BACKUP COPIES and the SET BACKUP COPIES commands. The performance overhead for TYPICAL mode is approximately 5 to 10% and potentially higher for FULL mode. When RMAN needs a read-consistent version of the control file, it creates a temporary snapshot control file. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, the snapshot control file location must be on shared storagethat is, storage that is accessible to all Oracle RAC instances.

The CONFIGURE settings for duplexing only affect backups of data files, control files, and archived logs into backup sets, and do not affect image copies. If no encryption algorithm is specified, then the default encryption algorithm is 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). 1- Restore Control Files while connecting to the root container, 4- Restore the database according to the sequence, To recover a PDB we can : In addition to configuring parameters that apply to all channels of a particular type, you can also use the CONFIGURE command to configure parameters that apply to one specific channel.