While planning, in its broadest definition, is organizing the future to achieve certain objectives (Inskeep, 1991), implementation literally denotes carrying out a plan to realize those objectives. Similar divergence of views regarding how to implement the planned elements can also be found in TA03, PM02, PM03 and EM03. Cooper C., Gilbert D., Fletcher J., Wanhill S. Longman Group; London: 1993. In most cases, the private investors will put the local economic development and environment protection behind their own profit. In TA10, lack of detailed measures for action in the plan is reported as the cause of the GPI. A plan can only forecast a foreseeable future at the most.

By doing so, it is necessary to organize training programs on implementation issues, set up a monitoring committee and, appoint when necessary, experts from the planning team to supervise the implementation. General Rule of Tourism Planning by CNTA, 2003). The third step is to explore, through in-depth interview, the difficulties the park practitioners have met in carrying out the plan by 2004. There exist two types of GPI (disparity): not implemented (the recommendations as a whole or in part fail to be carried out); deviated implementation (the plan's implementation fails to observe the recommendations). deviated implementation: 10 out of 19 elements (TA02, TA03, TA05, TA08, PM01, PM04, HRM01, HRM02 and EM03). But we believe that the causes of the GPI revealed through our research can somehow offer insightful policy implications for that purpose. Rather, we aim to help enhance quality of tourism planning by offering insightful implications about what workable countermeasures should be sought against GPI, particularly regarding the planning exercise in China.

Ioannides D. A flawed implementation of sustainable tourism: The experience of Akamas, Cyprus.

In the inland regions, development plans are subject to higher rate of abortion due to the comparatively less developed social, cultural and economic conditions, therefore may offer typically exemplifying cases for such a research. In recent years there have been an increasing number of private entrepreneurs, coming especially from the wealthier neighboring Zhejiang Province, to invest in the tourism projects of Anhui. This system will require a planner be certified before she/he can provide planning service. sydex The specific techniques for collecting and analyzing the data begin with a conceptualization of GPI, which aims to establish a theoretical framework for the research. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help Their ultimate purpose is to form recommendations that will guide activities in the phase of plan implementation, so as to achieve the goals of planning.

. Such an attitude toward protecting the eco-system is probably encouraged by the private investment in the park. The park is located in a national nature reserve where the eco-system is rather fragile and highly sensitive to human activities. (2003). It is widely acknowledged that planning is crucial to successful tourism development and management; and planning has been a widely adopted principle in tourism development at both regional and national levels (Inskeep, 1991; World Tourism Organization [hereafter WTO], 1994). Guniujiang ziran baohuqu gaishu [A survey of natural conservation of Guniujiang] In: Han Y.L., Wu C.H., Zhang S.W., editors. The flaws will result in too broad-brush and conceptualized planning instead of a feasible plan of action. In particular, mid and long-term examination of plan implementation under the very context of China is urgently needed.

All in all, GPI must be prevented because it significantly reduces the effect of planning on tourism development.

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Inskeep E. Van Nostrand Reinhold; New York: 1991. Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies As matter of fact, it has long experienced a depopulation of its workforce since the 1980s when the Chinese central government adopted the policy that gives development priority to the coastal regions. The new PMC design is here! Pearce D.G. It is essential now for the park to have a site planning, by professionals, to provide more detailed instructions for plan implementation in the next phase. China, Gap, Implementation, Planning, Tourism. Routledge; New York: 2002. In addition, zoning and making arrangements for infrastructures and facilities are part of the main purpose. What is your opinion about postponing and/or advancing the implementation of the elements?

One possibility of the cause is that the planners might have missed writing the relevant details in the plan. Representative implementation elements finalized in GGTDMP.

What kind of difficulties have you come across when carrying out the elements? Zhang G.R.

Consequently, the park practitioners themselves have to confront the difficulties in implementing the plan. King B., McVey M., Simmons D. A societal marketing approach to national tourism planning: Evidence from the South Pacific. Such plans normally range from 10 to 20 years, where the nature and impact of all relevant factors cannot be predicted at the outset with complete accuracy. The existing literature of tourism planning offers little in-depth study of GPI. However, it is not sufficient for the content to avoid being complained about by the park practitioners who are to implement the plan. Established in 1988, GNNR is located across the borders of Qimen County and Shitai County in the southwest of China's Anhui Province (see Fig. There may be two reasons for the complaints. Basic tourism planning process (based on Cooper et al. Despite the public criticism on plan abortions, planning as an approach to tourism development will continue to show its crucial role in visualizing the future for guiding principles to form, which will help avert the pitfalls in the tourism development process. Their efforts deserve respect, but in the long run may be detrimental to the overall strategy and sustainability of tourism development in the reserve, because they are, after all, lacking in planning expertise and experience. It is acknowledged by experts such as Gunn (2002) and Pearce (2000) that a plan should never be absolute about the future of what has been planned. The situations are highlighted where the implementation of the key elements has brought forth deviated outcomes (deviated implementation) and; where these elements have failed to be implemented at all (not implemented). A well-prepared TOR can help prevent unqualified planners from taking the planning project(s) at the outset. Baidal J.A.I. Although China's strongly centralized economy still encourages this kind of topdown planning approach (especially for the government initiated planning projects), Inskeep (1991) has proven, for more than a decade, such an approach would only produce unfeasible plans over the long term. Any short-term economic gains achieved at high environmental costs will prove to be detrimental to the overall well-being of the park itself. Therefore they may not have adequate practical business knowledge relevant to the projects they are invited to plan for. Tourism in China: Geographic, political, and economic perspectives. The direct cause of the GPI regarding HRM02 is the withdrawal of qualified staff workers from the workforce of the park. The second implication is the professionalism of planning and management needs to be significantly improved. They are study preparation, determination of objectives, surveys, analysis and synthesis, plan formulation and recommendations. This is also true of the private investment in GNGP. The examination regarding the 3-year implementation of GGTDMP helps detect 57.58% (19 out of 33) elements by which the GPI exists to hinder the implementation process: The manifestations of the GPI are presented in Table 2 First of all, the park practitioners, especially the general manager, should acquire some basic knowledge of planning to prevent misunderstandings to it. This research is supported by Hui Oi Chow Trust Fund, and the field work is conducted in Guniujiang National Geological Park. In this studied case, for instance, the planner-practitioner tie broke once the plan was ratified in 2001. Ten interviewees are selected out of the total 49 staff members of the park to represent the key managerial workers who are familiar with the content of the plan and have involved directly with the implementation. and transmitted securely. Our theoretical framework developed through this research should also be useful for plan reviewing and monitoring, regarding which relevant methods are lacking and yet to be found out. Such a phenomenon is not rare to find in China, where tourism has become increasingly important for the country's economy. The planners recommend creating a recreation area in the bamboo wood around the Guniu Lake, which requires cutting part of the wood. Besides, the park managers must stop acting as a planner.

That is to say, the park practitioners prove to be very selective according to the level of difficulty in implementing a certain item recommended. Such a difficult situation can be improved by applying customer relationship management to establish a dynamic planner-practitioner tie. The park human resource manager blames this for that most of the park employees are too young to stand the tranquil and lonely life in the park. The elements include TA02 suggesting a lack of demand for the tea service provided which is incompatible with the local traditional tea culture; TA03, TA04, TA12, SF02 and SF04, which all indicate various constraints for constructing projects in the park; TA05, TA07 and I04, which respectively, indicate the difficulties for putting on the traditional local opera showMulian, establishing a forest fresh air enjoyment club, and providing tourists with the sightseeing battery cars. This phenomenon of GPI, or plans being aborted and inadequately implemented, is not rare in China's tourism planning exercises. Since tourism mirrors the economic, political and cultural features of a nation where it operates (Joppe, 1996), the reported barriers must be examined according to the specific situations within which the planning and implementation actually operate. The third implication is mechanism that can facilitate the bilateral planner-practitioner tie needs to be established.

After a planning project is finished, the tourism planner must still keep close contact with the clients to ensure that the implementation follows up well. The above recommendations put forward, it is now time for us to fulfill the ultimate taskdrawing insights about the countermeasure against GPI. In his view, what is most important for planning is to initiate a project and generate quick profits. Guided by the assessment results in Step 2, in-depth interviews are conducted to the general manger, the department managers and the staff workers of the park for collecting the primary data regarding the difficulties they have met in implementing GGTDMP (see Table 3 (1993); Inskeep (1991); McIntosh et al. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. The managers should have actively involved in the planning stage to eliminate any disputes between both sides before the plan can be ratified and legitimized, instead of interpreting the plan arbitrarily in the implementation stage. The review process is developed with reference to some published methods (Gunn, 2002; WTO, 1994) consisting of six categories: tourist attractions (12), infrastructures (4), service facilities (6), promotion and marketing (4), human resource management (2) and environment management (5). The initial implementation of GGTDMP must be reviewed comprehensively to find out elements that should be altered, updated, or even canceled. In doing so, they can make sure their real wants will be clearly articulated and thus choose the most competent planners to meet such wants. No detailed planning has been specified regarding this matter, so the park general manager just acts, partially as a planner and, in the meantime, an interpreter to do the actual job of implementation, with the assistance of his business friends and clients. On the other hand, such private investment has pitfalls. The second step is to assess effects of implementation by making a comparison between the selected elements in the handbook and the actual implementation results according to the data collected through on-site observation in the park and some relevant business performance records. Wiley; New York: 1995. It is common for a single project to include various levels of planning, such as the exercises conducted elsewhere (WTO, 1994) which, however, is not true of the case in China. Shenzhen Shenlanke Company Ltd., 2001), which has been steered by a private investor to develop a national park in the reserve. Joppe M. Sustainable community tourism development revisited. ). A review of the recommendations of GGTDMP helps finalize 33 elements as sampling indicators for detecting the GPI that may hinder implementing GGTDMP (see Table 1 Actual and anticipated tourist arrivals of GNGP between 2002 and 2004 (based on Shenzhen Shenlanke Company Ltd., 2001 and the survey result). zhishang huahua, qiangshang guagua (drawn on the paper then hung on the wall), a well-known planning jargon, is just a Chinese edition of paper exercise. In: Lew A.A., editor. Secondly, the park practitioners need to act right now to compensate for the losses caused by the flaws of master planning. Veal A.J. Recently in Anhui Province, various tourism projects have been initiated for boosting the local economic development. Based on those findings, the following recommendations are specifically raised for the park to reduce the impact of the GPI. So, the differences of development among regions of China, the exercise of private investments, CNTA's regulations regarding tourism planning, as well as the background and performance of the planners are all considered. The method requires the planner conduct a thorough study of the social, cultural, economic and environmental obstacles that may hinder the implementation of the plan, so that different development scenarios can be presented for the practitioners to predict, more accurately, when and how those obstacles can be eliminated in a foreseeable future.

This, however, is not the case, when CNTA's rule is applied for examination (cf. An official website of the United States government. China National Tourism Administration. In: Lew A.A., Yu L., editors. Our case study shows the inadequate implementation of quite a number of elements is caused, at least partially, by the inadequate qualification and experience of the planner. This article has so far presented a research on the 3-year implementation of a master plan regarding a national nature reserve in Anhui, China. However, in the park practitioners view this is not an urgent matter to handle, obvious in the attitude repeatedly shown during the interviews: we will consider that later in due time (direct quotation from the interview). Anhui, where GNGP is located, has been lagged behind in social, cultural and economic development, being a marginalized inland province.