These organic acids consist of a pentacyclic triterpene, a carboxyl group, and at least one other functional group. It is important to note that most of the trials used various products made by various manufacturers, so clinical effects may not be comparable[63,64]. They have also reported that in chronic test of formaldehyde arthritis it exhibited 45-67% anti-arthritic activity in a similar dose range. [3], Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, with the research showing trends of benefit (slight improvement) in pain and function. -Boswellic acid, R1=H, R2=H2; acetyl--boswellic acid, R1=Ac, R2=H2; 11-keto--boswellic acid, R1=H, R2=O; acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid, R1=Ac, R2=O. In contrast to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), which are well known to disrupt glycosaminoglycan synthesis, thus accelerating articular damage in arthritic conditions, boswellic acids have been shown to significantly reduce glycosaminoglycan degradation[4043]. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the The majority of the studies of Boswellia species are concentrated toward the antiinflammatory activities. Ammon HP, Mack T, Singh GB, Safayhi H. Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of gum-resin exudates of. In addition to its beneficial use for arthritis, this gummy resin is also mentioned in traditional Ayurvedic and Unani texts as an effective remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery, ringworm, boils, fevers (antipyretic), skin and blood diseases, cardiovascular diseases, mouth sores, bad throat, bronchitis, asthma, cough, vaginal discharges, hair-loss, jaundice, hemorrhoids, syphilitic diseases, irregular menses and stimulation of liver. Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J, Anazodo MI, Subramanian LR, Ammon HP. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. The oil of boswellia is also known as Indian frankincense (Review of Natural Products, 2011b). Evans WC. Lemenih M, Teketay D. Frankincense and myrrh resources of Ethiopia: II.Medicinal and industrial uses. The first two pillars of Ayurveda describe the antirheumatic (antiarthritis) activity of gugguls-the gum-resins of trees[1620]. In patients with ulcerative colitis, Boswellia serrata 350mg tds for 6 weeks produced improvements in stool properties, histopathology of rectal biopsies, hemoglobin, serum iron, calcium, phosphorus, proteins, and total leukocyte and eosinophil counts, with remission in 82% of patients [3]. Physico-chemical standardization and development of HPTLC method for the determination of -boswellic acid from Boswellia serrata Roxb.(exudate). Diarrhea and flatulence occurred in five dogs. In vitro studies and animal models show that boswellic acids were found to inhibit the synthesis of pro-inflammatory enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) including 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB-4), which cause bronchoconstriction, chemotaxis, and increased vascular permeability[3338]. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: A double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. London: WB Saunders Company Ltd; 1996. Preparations from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata have been used as traditional remedies in Ayurvedic medicine in India for inflammatory diseases [1]. Boswellia serrata is one of the ancient and most valued herbs in Ayurveda. The resinous part of Boswellia serrata possesses monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, tetracyclic triterpenic acids and four major pentacyclic triterpenic acids i.e. jointace glucosamine potassium chloride tablets sulphate mg diacerein tablet pack meyer form gelatin bone excel strength osteoarthritis capsule Dekel S, Falconer J, Francis MJ. The new PMC design is here! Antiinflammatory agents from Indian medicinal plants. [57] in 2007 have reported that pure compound from Boswellia serrata extract exhibits antiinflammatory property in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and mouse macrophages through inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), NO and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. J. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics; pp. The extract and/or boswellic acids have been found to be effective in ulcerative colitis, chemically induced hepatic damage, bronchial asthma, and other diseases (Gupta et al., 1998; Kiela et al., 2005; Jyothi et al., 2006; Anthoni et al., 2006). Basch E, Boon H, Davies T, Hashmi S, Hasskari J, Sollars D, et al. Pang X, Yi Z, Zhang X, Sung B, Qu W, Lian X, et al. They decrease primary antibody synthesis, inhibit polymorphonuclear leukocyte proliferation and infiltration, enhance the phagocytotic function of macrophages, suppress the classical and alternate complement pathways, and suppress the inflammation process, one of the critical pathological features in asthma (Khajuria et al., 2008). These have also been used as adhesives, as ingredients for cosmetic preparations, as fragrances in daily rituals and in religious ceremonies, as coating materials and also for their different curative powers[13]. Boswellic acids are direct 5-LO inhibitors that efficiently suppress 5-LO product synthesis in common in vitro test models. Carbohydrate contents of. The corresponding figure with sulfasalazine 1g tds was 75%. The name Boswellia was given in honor of Johan Boswell, who discovered some species of Boswellia. Superfine, Grade I, Grade II and Grade III are available in the market. Out of these four boswellic acids, acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid is the most potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme responsible for inflammation. of India; p. 2045. Hostanska K, Daum G, Saller R. Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines. However, a sustained and uninterrupted supply of the source-materials often becomes difficult due to various factors like environmental variations, local cultural practices, diverse geographical distribution, increasing labour-cost, non-selection/improper selection of the suitable plant-stock and prevalent exploitative practices by pharmaceutical industry. Some of the branded formulations containing Boswellia serrata available in the market are:-. It also showed antipyretic effect, with no ulcerogenic effect. The antiarthritic potential of BA is reported to be due to its anti-inflammatory activity mediated through inhibition of NF-B, COX-2, and 5-LOX (Takada et al., 2006). Boswellia serrata (Salai/Salai guggul), is a moderate to large sized branching tree of family Burseraceae (Genus Boswellia), grows in dry mountainous regions of India, Northern Africa and Middle East. Leung AY, Foster S. 2nd ed. Sharma S, Thawani V, Hingorani L. Pharmacokinetic study of 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. Shallaki, contains 125 mg Boswellia serrata in each capsule manufactured by Himalayan Drug Company, Makali, Bangalore, as Licensed User of the Trade Mark owned by MMI Corporation, has excellent antiinflammatory and analgesic properties, useful in relieving joint-pains. But the colour varies from golden brown to dark brown or dark greenish-brown depending on the locality, season, size of the tree and the wound-surface, collection process and storage.

8600 Rockville Pike 1. In vivo study examining the effect of Boswellia extract and ketoprofen on glycosaminoglycan metabolism showed that Boswellia considerably reduced the degradation of glycosaminoglycans compared to controls, whereas ketoprofen caused a reduction in total tissue glycosaminoglycan content[44]. The Boswellia serrata plant is native to India, and its extract has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. HLE is a serine protease, which initiates injury to the tissues which, in turn, triggers the inflammatory process. (turmeric), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon), Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. The recommended dosage is based on historical practice or available trials. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Anti-arthritic activity of boswellic acids in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced arthritis. The chemical structure of alpha-boswellic acid is shown in Figure 13.5. Processing and Product Development Division, Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Namkum, Ranchi-834 010, India. Hall, R. Bravo-Clouzet, in Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases, 2013. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Nees (creat or green chiretta), and Nigella sativa L. (black caraway). Krishnamurthy T, Shiva MP. It grows on dry hilly areas throughout India, North Africa, and the Middle East. Schweizer S, von Brocke AF, Boden SE, Bayer E, Ammon HP, Safayhi H. Workup-dependent formation of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory boswellic acids analogues. Derivatives of boswellic acids. Hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations did not show any adverse effects in all organs tested. -boswellic acid, acetyl--boswellic acid, 11-keto--boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid, responsible for inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. and transmitted securely. Egyptians were the first to refer the use of Frankincense as an herbal medicine where it was used for the treatment of tumors, inflammatory disorders, and asthma [2]. Arora RB, Kapoor V, Basu N, Jain AP. Niltan, is a cream in a 15 g tube for external application. Incensole acetate, a novel antiinflammatory compound isolated from Boswellia resin inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation[58]. From ancient days onward, plants and plant-derived phytochemicals have been used in the treatment of various health disorders. Modern medicine and pharmacology strongly point out to its use as an antiarthritic, antiinflammatory, antihyperlipidemic (controls blood lipids), antiatherosclerotic (anticoronary plaque), analgesic (pain-reliever) and hepatoprotective (protects the liver)[15,2124]. The resin is generally harvested all through the summer and autumn after the tree has been wounded in March or April. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. For this reason, in the last 20 years olibanum has gained increasing attention from scientists to better define its medicinal effects and identify the constituents responsible for these effects. However, two AKBA-containing compounds, Alfapin and 5-Loxin, have good bioavailability.138 Boswellia resin has been shown to improve clinical signs and pain in humans in controlled studies.139-141 Boswellia resin has been evaluated in 24 dogs in an open multicenter study.142 Improvement in clinical signs, lameness, and pain was found in 17 of 24 dogs. With such interesting findings, we plan to determine the broad spectrum safety of Boswellia. Constituents of gum obtained from, Gangwal ML, Vardhan DK.

In this context, natural resins have played an important role. Raychaudhuri and her colleagues described their study as the first to evaluate the efficacy of the extract enriched with a form of boswellic acid on osteoarthritis[61]. Fast population-growth, inadequate supply of branded medicines, alarmingly prohibitive cost of treatment, adverse side-effects of several allopathic drugs and ever-increasing resistance to current drugs for infectious diseases have led to growing emphasis on the use of plant-materials as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leucocyte elastase. about navigating our updated article layout. Certain boswellic acids also inhibit elastase in leukocytes, inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit topoisomerases in cancer cell lines. are removed manually. in 1993 also elucidated that boswellic acids were found to inhibit leukotriene synthesis via 5-LO, but did not affect the 12-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase activities, nor did they prevent peroxidation of arachidonic acid by iron or ascorbate. Darkening of colour of resin is also due to autoxidation, polymerization and enzymatic reactions. Bartges, in Canine Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy (Second Edition), 2014. [1], Boswellia serrata is currently at risk of being eradicated because of non-sustainable practices. Ammon HP, Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J.

The family of Burseraceae is represented in the plant kingdom with 17 genera and 600 species wide-spread in all tropical regions. Raditic, J.W. will also be available for a limited time. Therefore, the tree should be left to rest for some years after harvesting period. The novel anti-inflammatory properties of the gum resin derived from Boswellia serrata, also known as Salai guggal in Ayurvedic medicine, are well recognized and highly recommended for human consumption. Studies on gum obtained from, Bhuchar VM, Agarwal AK, Sharma SK.

Extracts of B. serrata or -boswellic acid have been reported to inhibit hypersensitivity reactions by regulating both the humoral and cellular immune systems. They burned these resins during sacrificial ceremonies and in their daily rituals to prevent the influence of evil spirits on their souls or to honour the dead or living ones[46]. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help (2014) reported the pharmacokinetics of boswellic acids in arthritic rats and compared these with Huo Luo Xiang Ling Dan (HLXLD), which has 11 ingredients including boswellic acids. El-Khadem H, El-Shafei ZM, Elsekeify MA, Abdel Rahman MM. One of the six boswellic acids, acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), is present at 23% of the total extract and is the most important for positive health effects. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing; 1995. In 30 patients aged 1848 years with chronic colitis, characterized by vague lower abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and palpable tender descending and sigmoid colons, Boswellia serrata (900mg/day for 6 weeks) produced remission in 14 of 20 patients, and sulfasalazine (3g/day for 6 weeks) in 4 of 10 patients [4]. Since ancient times, it has been used in folk medicines for its antiseptic, antiarthritic and antiinflammatory effects. Ammon HP. 60 capsule costs Rs.

Till date, there are almost 21 species of Boswellia spread across the world.

In ancient times, Hindus, Babylonians, Persians, Romans, Chinese and Greeks as well as the people of old American civilizations used natural resins primarily for embalming and for its incense in cultural functions. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Diego P. de Oliveira, Mauro M. Teixeira, in Inflammation and Natural Products, 2021. It has been available as a high quality extract in India for nearly 25 years and marketed under the name Shallaki. The chapter presents an overview about the phytochemical constituents, pharmacokinetics, and different clinical and preclinical study data to provide an overview on the antiinflammatory activities of various species of Boswellia. The fresh gum obtained from the tree is hot with pleasant flavour and slightly bitter in taste. Therefore, primary aim should be to find out a rapid way of distinguishing the different types of olibanum from each other and to identify the diagnostic markers for each species. and Chopra et al. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 40 patients, aged 1875 years, with bronchial asthma, who were given Boswellia serrata 300mg tds for 6 weeks, 28 had improved dyspnea, a reduced number of attacks, increases in FEV1, FVC, and peak flow, and reduced eosinophil counts and ESR [2]. It was also used as a perfume and in religious celebrations. Manashi Bagchi, Debasis Bagchi, in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, 2011. Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The Boswellia serrata plant is native to India, and its extract has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. Boswellic acids: Novel, specific, non-redox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. There are about 25 known species belonging to Genus Boswellia, most of them occur in Arabia, northeastern coast of Africa and India. Medicinal Efficacy of Indian Herbal Remedies for the Treatment of Arthritis, Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases, Role of nutraceuticals in respiratory and allied diseases, Gupta et al., 1998; Kiela et al., 2005; Jyothi et al., 2006; Anthoni et al., 2006, Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), Selected herbal supplements and nutraceuticals, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, The Role of Chondroprotectants, Nutraceuticals, and Nutrition in Rehabilitation, Canine Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy (Second Edition), Medicinal plants and their potential use in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Palmowski MJ, Brandt KD. Received 2010 Aug 9; Revised 2011 May 30; Accepted 2011 Jun 5. The oleo gum-resins contain 30-60% resin, 5-10% essential oils, which are soluble in the organic solvents, and the rest is made up of polysaccharides. Oleo gum-resin is tapped from the incision made on the trunk of the tree and is then stored in specially made bamboo basket for removal of oil content and getting the resin solidified. The resin of Boswellia species (frankincense, olibanum) has been used as incense in religious and cultural ceremonies since time immemorial. Traditional medicine using extracts made from this plant has long been used to treat asthma. Primary skin irritation test was conducted with Boswellia on New Zealand albino rabbits and Boswellia was classified as non-irritating. 5-LO generates inflammatory leukotrienes, which cause inflammation by promoting free radical damage, calcium dislocation, cell-adhesion and migration of inflammation-producing cells to the inflamed body area. The oldest written document mentioning boswellia as a drug is the papyrus Ebers written around 1500 BC. The interest of pharmaceutical companies created a third market for olibanum. In India, the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are the main source of Boswellia serrata. 75/- and the dose is 1 capsule twice daily (Batch No. Figure 13.5. A primary eye irritation test was conducted on rabbits and Boswellia was classified as mildly irritating to the eye. government site. On the interference of boswellic acids with 5-lipoxygenase: Mechanistic studies. Chemical structure of alpha-boswellic acid.

Gayathri et al. These results suggest that B. serrata might be effective in controlling the inflammation process and contraction of airway smooth muscle in asthmatic conditions by inhibiting enzymes required for the production of proinflammatory mediators and bronchoconstrictors. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1948. Chiavari G, Galletti GC, Piccaglia R, Mohamud MA. 5-Loxin (a patent-pending product of PLT Health Solutions, Inc.), with 30% AKBA as its active ingredient, provides improvement in joint mobility and comfort within 1 week. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2007. Acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid inhibits prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2- mediated angiogenesis[60]. The fraction was effective in both adjuvant arthritis (35-59%) as well as established arthritis (54-84%). Standardization, quality control, and GMP for herbal drug. Then, it is broken into small pieces by wooden mallet or chopper and during this process all impurities including bark pieces etc. Alpha-boswellic acid and beta-boswellic acid both have an additional hydroxyl group; they differ only in their triterpene structure.