These organic acids consist of a pentacyclic triterpene, a carboxyl group, and at least one other functional group. It is important to note that most of the trials used various products made by various manufacturers, so clinical effects may not be comparable[63,64]. They have also reported that in chronic test of formaldehyde arthritis it exhibited 45-67% anti-arthritic activity in a similar dose range. , Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, with the research showing trends of benefit (slight improvement) in pain and function. -Boswellic acid, R1=H, R2=H2; acetyl--boswellic acid, R1=Ac, R2=H2; 11-keto--boswellic acid, R1=H, R2=O; acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid, R1=Ac, R2=O. In contrast to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), which are well known to disrupt glycosaminoglycan synthesis, thus accelerating articular damage in arthritic conditions, boswellic acids have been shown to significantly reduce glycosaminoglycan degradation. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the The majority of the studies of Boswellia species are concentrated toward the antiinflammatory activities. Ammon HP, Mack T, Singh GB, Safayhi H. Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of gum-resin exudates of. In addition to its beneficial use for arthritis, this gummy resin is also mentioned in traditional Ayurvedic and Unani texts as an effective remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery, ringworm, boils, fevers (antipyretic), skin and blood diseases, cardiovascular diseases, mouth sores, bad throat, bronchitis, asthma, cough, vaginal discharges, hair-loss, jaundice, hemorrhoids, syphilitic diseases, irregular menses and stimulation of liver. Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J, Anazodo MI, Subramanian LR, Ammon HP. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. The oil of boswellia is also known as Indian frankincense (Review of Natural Products, 2011b). Evans WC. Lemenih M, Teketay D. Frankincense and myrrh resources of Ethiopia: II.Medicinal and industrial uses. The first two pillars of Ayurveda describe the antirheumatic (antiarthritis) activity of gugguls-the gum-resins of trees. In patients with ulcerative colitis, Boswellia serrata 350mg tds for 6 weeks produced improvements in stool properties, histopathology of rectal biopsies, hemoglobin, serum iron, calcium, phosphorus, proteins, and total leukocyte and eosinophil counts, with remission in 82% of patients . Physico-chemical standardization and development of HPTLC method for the determination of -boswellic acid from Boswellia serrata Roxb.(exudate). Diarrhea and flatulence occurred in five dogs. In vitro studies and animal models show that boswellic acids were found to inhibit the synthesis of pro-inflammatory enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) including 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB-4), which cause bronchoconstriction, chemotaxis, and increased vascular permeability. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: A double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. London: WB Saunders Company Ltd; 1996. Preparations from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata have been used as traditional remedies in Ayurvedic medicine in India for inflammatory diseases . Boswellia serrata is one of the ancient and most valued herbs in Ayurveda. The resinous part of Boswellia serrata possesses monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, tetracyclic triterpenic acids and four major pentacyclic triterpenic acids i.e. Dekel S, Falconer J, Francis MJ. The new PMC design is here! Antiinflammatory agents from Indian medicinal plants.  in 2007 have reported that pure compound from Boswellia serrata extract exhibits antiinflammatory property in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and mouse macrophages through inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), NO and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. J. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics; pp. The extract and/or boswellic acids have been found to be effective in ulcerative colitis, chemically induced hepatic damage, bronchial asthma, and other diseases (Gupta et al., 1998; Kiela et al., 2005; Jyothi et al., 2006; Anthoni et al., 2006). Basch E, Boon H, Davies T, Hashmi S, Hasskari J, Sollars D, et al. Pang X, Yi Z, Zhang X, Sung B, Qu W, Lian X, et al. They decrease primary antibody synthesis, inhibit polymorphonuclear leukocyte proliferation and infiltration, enhance the phagocytotic function of macrophages, suppress the classical and alternate complement pathways, and suppress the inflammation process, one of the critical pathological features in asthma (Khajuria et al., 2008). These have also been used as adhesives, as ingredients for cosmetic preparations, as fragrances in daily rituals and in religious ceremonies, as coating materials and also for their different curative powers. Boswellic acids are direct 5-LO inhibitors that efficiently suppress 5-LO product synthesis in common in vitro test models. Carbohydrate contents of. The corresponding figure with sulfasalazine 1g tds was 75%. The name Boswellia was given in honor of Johan Boswell, who discovered some species of Boswellia. Superfine, Grade I, Grade II and Grade III are available in the market. Out of these four boswellic acids, acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid is the most potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme responsible for inflammation. of India; p. 2045. Hostanska K, Daum G, Saller R. Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines. However, a sustained and uninterrupted supply of the source-materials often becomes difficult due to various factors like environmental variations, local cultural practices, diverse geographical distribution, increasing labour-cost, non-selection/improper selection of the suitable plant-stock and prevalent exploitative practices by pharmaceutical industry. Some of the branded formulations containing Boswellia serrata available in the market are:-. It also showed antipyretic effect, with no ulcerogenic effect. The antiarthritic potential of BA is reported to be due to its anti-inflammatory activity mediated through inhibition of NF-B, COX-2, and 5-LOX (Takada et al., 2006). Boswellia serrata (Salai/Salai guggul), is a moderate to large sized branching tree of family Burseraceae (Genus Boswellia), grows in dry mountainous regions of India, Northern Africa and Middle East. Leung AY, Foster S. 2nd ed. Sharma S, Thawani V, Hingorani L. Pharmacokinetic study of 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. Shallaki, contains 125 mg Boswellia serrata in each capsule manufactured by Himalayan Drug Company, Makali, Bangalore, as Licensed User of the Trade Mark owned by MMI Corporation, has excellent antiinflammatory and analgesic properties, useful in relieving joint-pains. But the colour varies from golden brown to dark brown or dark greenish-brown depending on the locality, season, size of the tree and the wound-surface, collection process and storage.
In this context, natural resins have played an important role. Raychaudhuri and her colleagues described their study as the first to evaluate the efficacy of the extract enriched with a form of boswellic acid on osteoarthritis. Fast population-growth, inadequate supply of branded medicines, alarmingly prohibitive cost of treatment, adverse side-effects of several allopathic drugs and ever-increasing resistance to current drugs for infectious diseases have led to growing emphasis on the use of plant-materials as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leucocyte elastase. about navigating our updated article layout. Certain boswellic acids also inhibit elastase in leukocytes, inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit topoisomerases in cancer cell lines. are removed manually. in 1993 also elucidated that boswellic acids were found to inhibit leukotriene synthesis via 5-LO, but did not affect the 12-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase activities, nor did they prevent peroxidation of arachidonic acid by iron or ascorbate. Darkening of colour of resin is also due to autoxidation, polymerization and enzymatic reactions. Bartges, in Canine Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy (Second Edition), 2014. , Boswellia serrata is currently at risk of being eradicated because of non-sustainable practices. Ammon HP, Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J.
The family of Burseraceae is represented in the plant kingdom with 17 genera and 600 species wide-spread in all tropical regions. Raditic, J.W. will also be available for a limited time. Therefore, the tree should be left to rest for some years after harvesting period. The novel anti-inflammatory properties of the gum resin derived from Boswellia serrata, also known as Salai guggal in Ayurvedic medicine, are well recognized and highly recommended for human consumption. Studies on gum obtained from, Bhuchar VM, Agarwal AK, Sharma SK.
Extracts of B. serrata or -boswellic acid have been reported to inhibit hypersensitivity reactions by regulating both the humoral and cellular immune systems. They burned these resins during sacrificial ceremonies and in their daily rituals to prevent the influence of evil spirits on their souls or to honour the dead or living ones. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help (2014) reported the pharmacokinetics of boswellic acids in arthritic rats and compared these with Huo Luo Xiang Ling Dan (HLXLD), which has 11 ingredients including boswellic acids. El-Khadem H, El-Shafei ZM, Elsekeify MA, Abdel Rahman MM. One of the six boswellic acids, acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), is present at 23% of the total extract and is the most important for positive health effects. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing; 1995. In 30 patients aged 1848 years with chronic colitis, characterized by vague lower abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and palpable tender descending and sigmoid colons, Boswellia serrata (900mg/day for 6 weeks) produced remission in 14 of 20 patients, and sulfasalazine (3g/day for 6 weeks) in 4 of 10 patients . Since ancient times, it has been used in folk medicines for its antiseptic, antiarthritic and antiinflammatory effects. Ammon HP. 60 capsule costs Rs.
Till date, there are almost 21 species of Boswellia spread across the world.
Gayathri et al. These results suggest that B. serrata might be effective in controlling the inflammation process and contraction of airway smooth muscle in asthmatic conditions by inhibiting enzymes required for the production of proinflammatory mediators and bronchoconstrictors. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1948. Chiavari G, Galletti GC, Piccaglia R, Mohamud MA. 5-Loxin (a patent-pending product of PLT Health Solutions, Inc.), with 30% AKBA as its active ingredient, provides improvement in joint mobility and comfort within 1 week. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2007. Acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid inhibits prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2- mediated angiogenesis. The fraction was effective in both adjuvant arthritis (35-59%) as well as established arthritis (54-84%). Standardization, quality control, and GMP for herbal drug. Then, it is broken into small pieces by wooden mallet or chopper and during this process all impurities including bark pieces etc. Alpha-boswellic acid and beta-boswellic acid both have an additional hydroxyl group; they differ only in their triterpene structure.