[185], Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement. The European Union has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping. [252] Another high-profile case, against Microsoft, resulted in the commission fining Microsoft over 777million following nine years of legal action. 2126. However, following the UK's exit from the bloc in early 2020, the percentage of the EU population who spoke English as their native language fell from 13 per cent to 1 per cent. [317], The European Union has contributed to peace in Europe, in particular by pacifying border disputes,[318][319] and to the spread of democracy, especially by encouraging democratic reforms in aspiring Eastern European member states after the collapse of the USSR. Beginning on 1 January 2022, the position is held by France.[137]. [303] To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies (amounting to the difference between the community and world prices) to export their products outside the community. Constitutionally, the EU bears some resemblance to both a confederation and a federation,[121][122] but has not formally defined itself as either. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4million), France (5.1million), the United Kingdom (4.7million), Spain (4.1million), Italy (3.2million), and the Netherlands (1.4million). [82], A total of twenty official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family, represented by the Balto-Slavic,[h] the Italic,[i] the Germanic,[j] the Hellenic,[k] and the Celtic[l] branches. [83] Catalan, Galician and Basque are not recognised official languages of the European Union but have official status in one member state (Spain): therefore, official translations of the treaties are made into them and citizens have the right to correspond with the institutions in these languages. [115], Several overseas territories and dependencies of various member states are also formally part of the EU. Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size. [91], The preamble to the Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe". In addition, both are official languages of several EU member states. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.[152]. The European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products. Across the EU, belief was higher among women, older people, those with religious upbringing, those who left school at 15 or 16, and those "positioning themselves on the right of the political scale". The currency union represents 342million EU citizens. [200] The European Development Fund (EDF, 22.7billion for the period 20082013 and 30.5billion for the period 20142020) is made up of voluntary contributions by member states, but there is pressure to merge the EDF into the budget-financed instruments to encourage increased contributions to match the 0.7 per cent target and allow the European Parliament greater oversight. [206], The European Union is the largest exporter in the world[207] and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services. According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2015 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 71.6 per cent of the EU population. In 1954 the Western European Union was founded, after NATO took over competences from the WU and West Germany joined. and Upper Silesian area (Katowice, Ostrava et al.). [304], Charles the Great, also known as Charlemagne (Latin: Carolus Magnus) and later recognised as Pater Europae ("Father of Europe"),[305][306][307] has a symbolic relevance to Europe. In 1990, after the fall of the Eastern Bloc, the former East Germany became part of the communities as part of a reunified Germany.[43]. In 2012, its budget amounted to 874million, 51 per cent of the budget went to Africa and 20 per cent to Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and Pacific, and 20 per cent to the Middle East and Mediterranean. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states. The General Court mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts,[159] and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal adjudicates in disputes between the European Union and its civil service. (Slovak version pictured). An internal single market has been established through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where the states have agreed to act as one. [19] Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the union has developed a role in external relations and defence. On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. [186]:762 This influence on the internal affairs of other countries is generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power".

Financing European development cooperation: the Financial Perspectives 20142020. [q] The EU has legal personality, with the right to sign agreements and international treaties. web skills technologies introduction ben technology examples use development example please [73][74] In 2020, the EU stated that translation and interpreting costs were less than 1% of its annual budget of 148 billion. The European Commission acts both as the EU's executive arm, responsible for the day-to-day running of the EU, and also the legislative initiator, with the sole power to propose laws for debate. In 2002, the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states. [230] The ECB is the central bank for the eurozone, and thus controls monetary policy in that area with an agenda to maintain price stability. International recognition of sustainable development as a key element is growing steadily. The difference between the richest and poorest regions (281 NUTS-2 regions of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) ranged, in 2017, from 31 per cent (Severozapaden, Bulgaria) of the EU28 average (30,000) to 253 per cent (Luxembourg), or from 4,600 to 92,600. Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. [155], Under the principle of supremacy, national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and (within limits) even constitutional provisions. [91] Discussion over the draft texts of the European Constitution and later the Treaty of Lisbon included proposals to mention Christianity or a god, or both, in the preamble of the text, but the idea faced opposition and was dropped.[92]. [95] The most religious countries were Malta (95 per cent, predominantly Catholic) as well as Cyprus and Romania (both predominantly Orthodox) each with about 90 per cent of citizens professing a belief in God. [290] In 2018, the EU region with the highest life expectancy was Madrid, Spain at 85.2 years, followed by the Spanish regions of La Rioja and Castilla y Len both at 84.3 years, Trentino in Italy at 84.3 years and le-de-France in France at 84.2 years. [180], The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. [s] Previously, the EU itself could not accede to the convention as it is neither a state[t] nor had the competence to accede. The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. [245] The Polish road network was upgraded such as the A4 autostrada.[246]. EU policy is in general promulgated by EU directives, which are then implemented in the domestic legislation of its member states, and EU regulations, which are immediately enforceable in all member states. [280] EU research and technological framework programmes deal in a number of areas, for example energy where the aim is to develop a diverse mix of renewable energy to help the environment and to reduce dependence on imported fuels. In some policies, there are several member states that ally with strategic partners within the union. The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.[232]. The Dollar As Leading Reserve Currency", "There Are Only Two Real Threats To The US Dollar's Status As The International Reserve Currency", "Euro area unemployment rate at 10.3%, EU28 at 8.9%", "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 31% to 626% of the EU average in 2017", "Living and working in the Single Market", "Almunia says 'undesirable' to act on Sweden's euro refusal", "Europe seals deal on financial supervision", "Energy consumption and production: EU27 energy dependence rate at 54% in 2006: Energy consumption stable", "The European Power Sector in 2020 / Up-to-Date Analysis on the Electricity Transition", "Kazakhstan's Gas: Export Markets and Export Routes", "EU's greenhouse gas strategy fails to plug methane hole", "Ukraine-Russia gas dispute call for stronger EU energy policy", "EU leans towards Russian oil ban by year-end, diplomats say", "EU unveils 300 billion plan to reduce its energy dependency on Russia", "The trans-European transport network: new guidelines and financial rules", "EUR 650 million for the Polish Road Network", "Jacques Barrot Home Page, Commission vice president for transport", "Agriculture: Meeting the needs of farmers and consumers", "Sugar: Commission proposes more market-, consumer- and trade-friendly regime", "The Commission prohibits GE's acquisition of Honeywell", "Microsoft caves in to European Commission", "Eurostat Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table", "As es el seguro europeo contra el paro que propone el futuro comisario de Empleo de la UE elEconomista.es", "Proposed EU directive on minimum wage brews controversy from all sides", "Strengthening minimum income protection in the EU", "Following the Council Conclusions on Minimum Income, it is time for the European Commission to respond with courage and propose a legally binding EU framework for Minimum Income", "Union of Equality: The Commission presents its first-ever strategy on LGBTIQ equality in the EU", "La Comisin Europea propone ampliar la lista de delitos de la Unin Europea para incluir los delitos de odio", "Chapter 2: The European Union Structural and Cohesion Funds", "Populists, greens and the new map of European politics", "EU summit deadlock over top jobs and climate discord", "European Commission launches proposals to reach 55% emissions reduction by 2030", "US and EU pledge 30% cut in methane emissions to limit global heating", "The Erasmus programme celebrates its 20th anniversary", "About the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency", "2019 Human Development Index Ranking | Human Development Reports", "In Europe, life expectancy is lower in the east", "Life expectancy: Are you in one of the top 5 regions? Against the blue sky of the Western world, the stars symbolise the peoples of Europe in a form of a circle, the sign of union. [251], The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market. [214], As a political entity the European Union is represented in the World Trade Organization (WTO). [208][209] Internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls. [247], The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the long lasting policies of the European Community. The budget included a COVID-19 recovery fund of 750billion. [169] Any EU citizen or entity may appeal to the ombudsman to investigate an EU institution on the grounds of maladministration (administrative irregularities, unfairness, discrimination, abuse of power, failure to reply, refusal of information or unnecessary delay). Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries. For more information, see, See Article 288 (ex Article 249 TEC) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on, According to the principle of Direct Effect first invoked in the Court of Justice's decision in. On 26 February 2016, it was made public that Cyprus has asked to make Turkish an official EU language, in a "gesture" that could help solve the division of the country. [132] It has 27 European commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. The overall life expectancy in the EU in 2018 was 81.0 years, higher than the World average of 72.6 years. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states.[227]. The independent European Research Council allocates EU funds to European or national research projects. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe. Frontex is an agency of the EU established to manage the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders. See Craig and de Brca, p. 115. EU member states own the estimated second largest after the United States (US$105trillion) net wealth in the world, equal to around 20 per cent (~60trillion) of the US$36trillion (~300trillion)[215] global wealth. Essential for the actual birth of the institutions of the EU was the 9th of May 1950 Schuman Declaration (on the day after the fifth Victory Day, today's Europe day of the EU) and the decision by six nations (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, West Germany and Italy) to follow Schuman and draft the Treaty of Paris incepting by 1952 the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), built on the 1949 Allies installed International Authority for the Ruhr. [242], The European Union is working to improve cross-border infrastructure, for example through the Trans-European Networks (TEN). The judicial branch of the European Union is formally called the Court of Justice of the European Union and consists of two courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court. It maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. [p] Directives require member states to achieve a certain result while leaving them discretion as to how to achieve the result. [84][85], Luxembourgish (in Luxembourg) and Turkish (in Cyprus) are the only two national languages that are not official languages of the EU. The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe, an international organisation independent of the EU and based in Strasbourg. [citation needed], In 2006, the EU-27 had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe). These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation[p] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants. The EU has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls across the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces,[176] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors,[177] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities. [221] In 2016, unemployment in the EU stood at 8.9 per cent[222] while inflation was at 2.2 per cent, and the account balance at 0.9 per cent of GDP. The eurozone (constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro) has since grown to 19 countries. The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network. [308] Since 2008, the organisers of this prize, in conjunction with the European Parliament, have awarded the Charlemagne Youth Prize in recognition of similar efforts led by young people. [108], The four countries forming the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) are not EU members, but have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, which are a part of the single market through the European Economic Area, and Switzerland, which has similar ties through bilateral treaties. [295], Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU. Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries. [33][34], During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. The Council of Europe was the first institution to bring the sovereign nations of Europe together, raising great hopes and fevered debates in the following two years for further European integration. america freedom country american isn memorial veterans why dont protect don man today god military going three around quotes young Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological figure of Europa has frequently been employed as a personification of Europe. ", "Cultural Policy and Politics in the European Union", "An Overture to the European Union Youth Orchestra", "IOC, FIFA presidents welcomes new EU treaty, call it breakthrough to give sports more power", "Sports coaches from Israel travel to UK for training", "Thirty-sixth meeting of the ministers' deputies: resolution (55) 32", Guide graphique relatif l'emblme europen, "Graphical specifications for the European Emblem", "Der Karlspreistrger Seine Heiligkeit Papst Johannes Paul II. There are several other countries that are negotiating to join the European Union. [197] The European Union Military Staff is the highest military institution of the European Union, established within the framework of the European Council, and follows on from the decisions of the Helsinki European Council (1011 December 1999), which called for the establishment of permanent political-military institutions. The euro currency became the second-largest reserve currency in the world. [53] A referendum in the UK on its membership of the European Union was held in 2016, with 51.9 per cent of participants voting to leave. The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. [263][264] Several funds provide emergency aid, support for candidate members to transform their country to conform to the EU's standard (Phare, ISPA, and SAPARD), and support to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS). In 2020, the first ever European Union Strategy on LGBTIQ equality was approved under Helena Dalli mandate. [40] In 1985, the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. [291], Cultural co-operation between member states has been an interest of the European Union since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty. Institute for European Environmental Policy (2012) Manual of European Environmental Policy, Earthscan, London. [278][279] Through its support of the Bologna Process, the EU is supporting comparable standards and compatible degrees across Europe. It is at the centre of the European System of Central Banks, which comprehends all EU national central banks and is controlled by its General Council, consisting of the President of the ECB, who is appointed by the European Council, the vice-president of the ECB, and the governors of the national central banks of all 27 EU member states. [142] Next was "agriculture" with approximately 31 per cent of the total. Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council. Article 39 (ex Article 33) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on. The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies. There is a significant variation in nominal GDP per capita within individual EU states. [281], The EU has no major competences in the field of health care and Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities". Paralleling Schuman, the Pleven Plan of 1951 tried, but failed to tie the institutions of the developing European community under the European Political Community, which was to include the also proposed European Defence Community, an alternative to West Germany joining NATO which was established 1949 unter under the Truman Doctrine. [126] It is actively involved in the negotiation of treaty changes and defines the EU's policy agenda and strategies. Accordingly, the union has legislated in areas such as extradition,[172] family law,[173] asylum law,[174] and criminal justice.

It consists of a representative from each member state's government and meets in different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed. Galileo is a proposed Satellite navigation system, to be built by the EU and launched by the European Space Agency (ESA). Signing the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership. The European Parliament is one of three legislative institutions of the EU, which together with the Council of the European Union is tasked with amending and approving the European Commission's proposals. The European Council gives political direction to the EU. The expansion of the EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord. [210], The European Union has concluded free trade agreements (FTAs)[211] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others. Furthermore, in March 1948 the Treaty of Brussels was signed, establishing the Western Union (WU) and in 1954 expanding the treaty for the creation of the Western European Union (WEU). The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq. These legislative instruments are dealt with in more detail.

Containing 5.8 percent of the world population in 2020,[c] the EU had generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of around US$17.1trillion in 2021,[17] constituting approximately 18 percent of global nominal GDP. [142] "Administration" accounts for around 6 per cent. Federalism and European union: The building of Europe, 19502000. [296], The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity. [81] German is the most widely spoken mother tongue (18 per cent of the EU population), and the second most widely understood foreign language, followed by French (13 per cent of the EU population). ), the Flemish Diamond (Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven, Ghent et al.) [28] Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, who successfully established during the interwar period the oldest organization for European integration, the Paneuropean Union, founded in June 1947 the European Parliamentary Union (EPU). In 1979, the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held.[39]. The European Union uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the union. This is reflected in the fact that the member states remain the 'masters of the Treaties', retaining control over the allocation of competences to the union through constitutional change (thus retaining so-called Kompetenz-kompetenz); in that they retain control of the use of armed force; they retain control of taxation; and in that they retain a right of unilateral withdrawal under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. [299], The flag of Europe consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. Brings together ministers of member states governments' departments. union european students everipedia wiki obama state national him barack does given constitution members weapons american had medium its corruption order why face trump