The tools used are direct mail, telemarketing and online marketing. Sophisticated network techniques such as PERT and CPM can be used by industrial marketers to ensure proper coordination and timely completion of all the activities concerning the launching of new industrial product. Advertising messages must be formulated on the basis of how the supplier's product(s) can assist in solving customer problems and relate to the needs of the particular target audience. The costs involved in implementing the advertising program become the basis for determining the advertising appropriation. The industrial marketer selects few intermediaries to distribute the products to the target customer.

They are: There are different types of intermediaries that the industrial marketers should identify. But in initiating a price cut, the company might trigger a price war, as competitors try to hold on to their market shares. People with reasonably fair experience and skills in strategic planning, marketing, finance, and engineering could be given the task of business analysis. Generally, industrial organisations tend to be technically orientedmuch more interested in a particular product and its technical development. This is referred as Two-part pricing. As the unit purchase price of capital items is high, borrowing money for a period of time, which is roughly equivalent to the expected life of the fixed assets, finances these items. A Product will not sell by itself; it needs the best of strategies. Once established, management chooses the strategies and actions necessary to achieve those objectives.

The new product is initially aimed at those market segments where demand is least sensitive to price. Together, these constitute a hierarchy of objectives, and plans to achieve them, which make up the guidance system of an enterprise. The following discussion clarifies different key members or DMUs in industrial buying decisions: For purchases of high value capital equipment, the top management in most firms got involved in the supplier selection, as it may have a major impact on the firm's operations. Specialized distributors limit their inventories to specific product range like bearings, office equipment and supplies, electrical equipment and supplies, or abrasives etc. Damus has come to know that clients have been working out strategy to handle these vendor problems and work with select quality players. I People Express some years later fell into these traps.. Companies may have to cut their prices in a period of economic recession. An MIS is, as will shortly be seen, more than raw data it incorporates the process that transform data into information suitable for the purposes of decision. The commercialization process involves execution of the various activities developed in an action plan as a part of the marketing plan. Again one must appreciate that impoverished inputs of hygiene factor will lead to reduced sales performance. It is the role of the salesperson that helps the organization to increase its sale and reach its objectives. They need to identify their potential buyers and the main decision makers among them, give them a sales presentation, and then develop a continuous rapport. Need to weight for this. making. An advertising budget, on the other hand, details how advertising dollars are to be expended from monies appropriated for advertising for individual campaigns by media, by time frames, by market segments and audiences, and by geographic areas. The channel institutions must find it remunerative to advocate the forward supply chain linkage. There are various advantages of personal selling that help an organization to promote the products effectively and increase the sales.

For example, an aluminum extrusion unit buys aluminum billets to manufacture aluminum-extruded products such as door and window frames, by using an extrusion press.

The purchase orders are issued based on the evaluation of tender offers, with or without negotiations with the suppliers.

There is no universal method to do so but engaging the target audience into higher level of involvement brings desire. However, the degree of cooperation the manufacturer receives from his several outlets covering the same territory is likely to be small because none receives preferential treatment and each is competing with the others in the sale of the manufacturer's product. This is advantageous to the industrial buyers as all their problems are solved in a single go by one party who would take the responsibility if anything goes wrong. This leads to slow down of business and customer dissatisfaction. Operating items: Again rugs, cotton, gloves, lubes and such likes are considered to be operating items since they are essential for running the machine smoothly. If so explain such a trend. The main advantage of directory advertising is that is a highly credible medium, and for many buyers, their basic purchasing tool. The firm can draw on experience curve effect and can also achieve the economies of scale. However, these aims have to be refined and qualified in order to match between the capabilities of an enterprise and opportunities it seeks to exploit. Regarding social behavior, mall surveys get a more honest response than telephone surveys. In order to trace positivism in the phenomenon one resorts to exploratory design. Each should comply with the commitments about their individual responsibilities and tasks to be performed. Operating Lease refers to a short-term lease of an asset for an hour, a day etc. The going rate in other type of competition is not a long term solution. Thus, advertising in trade journals, business magazines that are read by R&D Managers, engineers help the companies to reach their target audience. Two types of data, Primary, Secondary inside or outside the organization. Ofcourse in another situation when the product is in market testing sometimes the firm as industrial marketer may also opt for going rate pricing. However, it is expensive and one relies on customer estimates this could be looked as its shortcoming. Inventory Effect. Products comprised of ubiquitous materials will usually be produced near market locations to reduce transportation costs. Here two or more segments are sought with a Marketing Mix for each segment, different marketing plan for each segment. The greatest advantage of this strategy is that it focuses on recovering the investment at an early stage by generating mor profits. Additionally, because little or no product differentiation exists between many industrial supplies, marketers of such products frequently need to remind users and potential users of their firms' unique capabilities or make them aware of new products and services. The other pricing objectives such as to meet or prevent the competition, to stabilize the market, to avoid government intervention etc. At times, it may be advisable to do everything possible for a vendor if that makes it easier to sell to him as a customer. It comprises of a range of programs that are planned to promote a good image about a company or its individual products.

Also, for various reasons including the inability to get past purchasing agents, buying influencers are often inaccessible to sales people. Since the unit price of heavy equipment is very high, its purchase may involve financial problems for the buyer. These classification need to be defined by the marketing manager depending on the situation prevailing in the industry. The new product concept will more on to the next stage. Their general functions include getting the raw materials inspected, negotiating during sales and finally close the sales.

After the analysis of pricing objectives, demand, costs, competition and government regulations, the appropriate pricing strategy should be formulated by the industrial marketer. Data sheets provide detailed technical information on such things as product dimensions, efficiencies, performance data, and cost savings and, thus, are an important complement to the personal selling effort. Descriptive design intends to refer to description of a phenomena with no inclination or finding cause and effect relationship. specific product being sold as well as the market concerned.

Rising costs unmatched by productivity gains squeeze profit margins and lead companies to regular rounds of price increases.

Costs that vary with changes in output but not in direct proportion to quantities produced. This approach involves asking readers to complete quizzes or mathematical calculations to obtain some of the message's information.

The firm wants to win the contract, and winning normally requires submitting a lower price than competitors. The first step in developing an effective advertising plan begins with the formulation of advertising objectives. The mode of interaction could be in a continuum of structured to unstructured. "Ex-factory" means the prices prevailing at the factory gate. The firm bases its price on expectations of how competitors will price rather than on a rigid relation to the firm's costs or demand. While personal selling is often the most important aspect of the industrial marketer's communication strategy (due to the technical complexity of many products and the extensive negotiation process involved in the selling of industrial goods), advertising, sales promotions, and publicity also play a critical role in the development of communication strategy. While successful planning depends on cooperation between the different functional areas, whenever tasks and objectives are different or unclear between two or more departments a strong tendency for disharmony exists.

A large part of that has to do with the Internet, which is discussed in more detail below. The query exist that why can't we have reasonable Quality at reasonable costs. However, tailor made pricing strategy cannot be ruled out.

Going-rate pricing is quite popular. There are certain advantages of online marketing like being very cost-effective as even small organizations can use it, and accessing and retrieving the information is fast. Public and private institutions such as hospitals, schools, colleges, and universities are termed as institutional customers. Entertainment can have either positive or negative effects depending upon the buying situation, the nature of products, policies of buyer's organization and the buyer's culture. They have immense talent of negotiating and coordinating with various departments and also the ability of effectively using the exiting product in alternative ways. The frame work or plan for a study that guides the collection and analysis of data, it includes: Who collects the data? Consumers apparently were willing to pay higher prices for known products than for unknown products, Brands with high relative quality and high relative advertising obtained the highest prices. Advertising, sales promotion, and publicity are primarily used to create awareness, enhance the company's reputation, disseminate information on products, or generate leads for sales people. This gives an opportunity to understand the customer needs better and make an effective sale The marketing manager can customize the sales message accordingly depending upon the needs and types of customers As there is two-way communication process in personal selling, the sales team has a good opportunity to respond directly and promptly to any of the customer's queries and concerns Personal selling helps in passing on large amounts of technical data or other complex product information to the customers. Generally, prices were set by buyers and sellers negotiating with each other. Selection also depends on circulation, editorial content, and the cost of advertising space. x can fix its price little higher than its competitors. Competitors are most likely to react where the number of firms is small, the product is homogeneous, and the buyers are highly informed. Advertising helps salespersons to improve their sales by increasing their sales efficiency and effectiveness as people are already aware of their company, products, etc.

Samples have a chance of being misused or taken away by the salesperson and "sample hounds" who are not genuine prospects for the products. Therefore, the intermediaries select a supplier based on product, quality and also based on the policies of the supplier's product. The paper must include at least three current references and should be about 5-8 pages long (double spaced). Advertising, for instance, is used to lay a foundation for the sale by providing information on the company and its products and by reaching unknown or inaccessible buying influencers. As industrial sales are uneven with huge orders at erratic intervals, the logical and ideal method of compensation for sales force is generally by paying straight salary. It has appointed you as consultant to answer the following: Channel designing is a dynamic process that consists of either developing the new channels or modifying the existing ones. Data sheets should include enough technical and product performance information to assist customers in their decision making and should be left by sales people with the appropriate decision makers. The marketing manager insisted that suppliers should use good quality and thicker wood for packing the motors to minimize damage in transit. It is said to be successful only when the actual sales achieved by the trainee after the training is more than what he has achieved before the training. Survival is only a short term pricing objective and in the long run the firm must increase its prices to cover total cost and end up with some profits. Capital items include; Heavy Equipment/Installations, Light equipment/Accessories. In fact, according to one study, when buyers are exposed to a firm's industrial ads, their opinion of the firm improves, dollar sales per call are higher, and the firm's sales personnel are rated considerably higher on product knowledge, service, and enthusiasm. This ensures nil rejection at the buyer's factory. While planning in the industrial market is as sophisticated as it is in the consumer arena, too often industrial firms concentrate planning efforts in the marketing department, failing to recognize the interdependency between marketing and other functional areas. In fact, studies have indicated that on the average for every ten buying influencers, salesperson reaches only three to four. Relationship Marketingone-to-onelong-term, Old model, sell one product to as many customers as possible. It should possess those properties which fit the needs of target markets. One commonly used method of market testing is introduction of the new product at trade shows where usually large number of prospective customers is exposed to the new product. As Effective industrial advertising creates awareness or alerts potential purchasers to problems within their operations (phase 1) and identifies the supplier's company and its products as offering possible solutions to those problems (phases 2 and 4), which helps to assure that the advertiser is given favourable consideration when specifications are written and suppliers selected (phases 3 and 6).

Customers' assessment of unique product features in the company's offer establishes the ceiling price. This indirectly educates the customers and updates them on latest happenings on the industry, company and new products. Other writers and practitioners may prefer other breakdowns perhaps as good as or better than this one. To maximize the sales revenue in the short run is the pricing objective for some firms.

Technology is changing at an unprecedented pace, and these changes are speeding up the pace of new product and service development. The search process is passive search or limited search coupled with low involvement situation. For example, the consultation services associated with the sale of computers is as important as computer itself. 2. The channel must be responsive to change, adaptive to change and entrepreneurial so that the industrial buyer's need is properly addressed. The type of products, the phase of the buying-decision making process of customer firms, and the purchasing situations also influence the marketing strategy of industrial seller. Some of its limitations, are it cannot substitute personal selling and can be used only for creating awareness by giving message. Sellers often manipulate reference prices in pricing their product. The quantity discounts are justified as they reduce the cost of selling (since a bulk moves out with lesser of personal selling expense), inventory carrying, and transportation. For example, "would you sir(s) prefer the installation today or a later date"? For instance, a tyre manufacturer (say, MRF), who sells tyres to a truck manufacturer (say, , under such as circumstance the truck manufacturer is referred as an OEM. This is not the market Go Frugal caters or to say Capillary Technologies of Bangalore caters. The goal of JIT delivery is zero inventory and excellent quality of the material delivered by the supplier.

An inefficient and untimely delivery can make the customers to.

The team is expected to hold prospect's attention, build interest of the prospect then develop a desire and at the right time attempt to change the attitude to a behavior of purchase. material planning, supplier rating system, economic order quantity, value analysis and so on. Based on the assumption that the market is price sensitive and that the low prices will increase sales; the prices of products are fixed as low as possible by some firms with the objective of maximizing sales volume and market share of its products. Direct mail can be extremely wasteful if prospects are not clearly identified. Publicity has very high credibility in the eyes of organizational buyers as the sponsor does not pay anything for publicity and it is not a part of any promotional program.

For instance, when a product is sold solely depending on the advertising, then the effectiveness of advertising is determined by comparing the cost of advertising with the volume of sales generated. It is strictly a case of derived demand. Can be combined with interviews or singularly can be used Mechanical observation devices, IE cameras, eye movement recorders, scanner technology, Nielsen techniques for media. The key to perceived-value pricing is to accurately determine the market's perception of the offer's value. Will the company sales force be willing to sell at that price or complain that the price is too high? It includes the firm's offices, plants (factories), warehouses, housing, parking lots, and so on. A pure service is one which is marketed on their own right not associated with intangible product.

Multipurpose equipment can be used by a number of different industries. Therefore, the modified re-buy situation occurs mostly when the buying firms are not satisfied with the performance of the existing suppliers. Specified criterion and procedure should be set for screening new product ideas. Thus, advertising not only reduces cost but also saves time of the company. We will examine the following price-setting Methods: markup pricing, target-return pricing, perceivedvalue pricing, value pricing, going-rate pricing, and sealed-bid pricing. It is also the most effective for shifting attitudes, which is the job we have to do. Costs that do not vary with production or sales upto a certain capacity of production or subject to the capacity in question. Customers do not always put a straightforward interpretation on price changes. Need to measure the sales potential of the chosen markets. The limitation of the skimming strategy is that more competitors are attracted due to high profits. The industrial marketer also has to take appropriate decisions on Appreciate the "partners in progress" relationship between the manufacturer and distributor. Finally, the manufacturer and the distributors should be partners in progress who has to understand each other and solve any conflicts arising between them. It helps him to modify the size of his sales force, make changes in the sales territories, deciding in the allocation of the sales calls. There are several basic differences between goods and services. In this case a Single Marketing Mix for the entire market identified is laid out. The major drawback of the task method, however, lies in the difficulty of determining in advance the amount of funds that will be needed to reach specific objectives. In this process, prospective customers are contacted through telephone and provided with all the required information and then converted to sales lead depending on their interest towards the company product. Another factor leading to price increases is over demand. However, the vendor analysis as systematic approach may be considered also. When the same message is repeated over and over for a long period of time and has both long continuity and high frequency, wear-out effects can be severe. At the same time, pricing and price competition are the numberone problems faced by many marketing executives. A marketing plan is useful to many people in a business.

Personal selling has an advantage of meeting customers directly, customizing the message as per the buyer's requirement, providing them huge data relating to company or product, demonstrating the product effectively and building long-term relationship. They also posses the skills that are required to negotiate with professional buyers, handle huge sales volumes, understand the customer's needs and solve their technical problems. As a result of the efforts of the company to launch a new industrial product for the first time in the market, fights back the competition in maturity stage by reducing the price, to match the competition spends more money on promotion, builds more intensive distribution, or new models by bringing major changes to the existing products. The rebates can help the manufacturer clear inventories without cutting the list price. The first category includes original equipment manufacturers, such as automakers, who buy gauges to put in their cars, and users, which are companies that purchase products for their own consumption. The decision making is done as a group activity with personnel across various department pooled in and executing the various buying roles. The cost of such items therefore, becomes part of the buying firm's Capital structures than as current expense. Although emotions such as fear, anxiety, frustration and status attainment can play a large role in a business buyer's mind, those desires to achieve are best served and those fears are best assuaged by the performance and value benefits attached to a business decision. Some sellers tell their customers they will charge their cost plus a specified markup; for example, aerospace companies price this way to the government. The firm is limited in what it can design because one has to keep it simple for marketing because neither the customer nor the marketing department understand the product and how it is supposed to work. Industrial buyers tend to purchase on the basis of a few specifics. Marketing is taking the entrepreneurial lead by finding market segments, untapped needs and new uses for existing products, and by creating new processes for sales, distribution and customer service. Companies are customizing marketing programs to individual accounts. Organizational studies and human resource management. Buyers are less price sensitive when the product is used in conjunction with assets previously bought. As a niche in the field of marketing as we know it today, however, its history is more recent. But, to have an increased efficiency and effectiveness of the overall marketing strategy, industrial marketer should have an integrated and well planned advertisement strategy that blends properly with personal selling efforts. best product quality, or dependable delivery, or lowest price and personal factors or non-task objectives viz. This involves probing into the past product usage and pattern of usage, the present product use and the pattern of use, competition or competitors and the firm's image regarding the product to be offered. The training process has to continue until the trainee becomes perfect in his job.

They may be marketed as either OEMs or user customer. Different industrial buyers have developed the purchase departments in their organisation. Sampling intends to study the issue of problem not taking data from every element of the population but by estimating with certain statistical reliability. would be taken up at this stage. There is one level of sales (LB) where the total selling costs for both are same. These firms expect IT to deliver measurable value for the investment. Adaptability, flexibility, speed, aggressiveness and innovativeness are the keys to remaining competitive today. In other words, the seller will charge the costs of freight and insurance to the buyer. It sums the reactions of many individuals who have different price sensitivities. The performance of the product in the users' firm, any problems confronted when the product is under use should be checked and addressed properly with the marketing and technical team, also they should interact with the user firm's technical team. mcq pdf hrm mcqs tqm answers which web events martin market structures sri lanka