A larger tree from the Payette Lake (Idaho) at 63 m3 had the largest volume ever recorded for this species, but fell victim to bark beetles (email, Robert Van Pelt, 1999.07.22). Finally, it is a common timberline species throughout its range, often persisting to higher elevations than any other conifer. Farjon, Aljos. Bark gray smooth, thin, becoming purplish-brown with scaly plates. The pure species of white spruce is generally only found north of Dawson Creek. Luckman, B. H., L. A. Jozsa, and P. J. Murphy. CPN (Certified Plant Nerd)Patrick.Breen@oregonstate.edu, College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture, USDA Hardiness Zone Maps of the United States, Oregon Master Gardener Training: Identifying Woody Plants, galls on the tips of young twigs of Sitka spruce, causing their death, Conifer, evergreen tree, 40-60(160) ft [12-18(49) m] tall, broadly conical with thin, horizontally spreading branches or swoop upward.

It is this point which gives the species its name pungens, which in Latin means sharp. Satisfactory surface quality when using rotary-knife lathe and poor when using a single point lathe. Engelmann spruce wood is used to produce violins, pianos and aircraft parts. Two successive years of heavy cone crops on a mature tree at Tiffany Mtn., Washington [C.J. Decayed wood is used to tan hides. No, Unique Morphological Features of Plant: Bluish color due to white powder on the needles, Pesty Plant (weedy, hard to control)?

from a stand near the alpine timberline at the headwaters of Fool Creek in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado. Good results. Easy and with good results. The bark is loose, scaly and reddish-brown to grey. Leaves 1.6-3(3.5) cm long, 4-angled in cross section, rigid, blue-green, bearing stomates on all surfaces, apex sharp-pointed. Slight to moderate blunting effect. Picea engelmannii commonly finds its niche within one of four ecological settings. Synonymy for var. Sections on Picea and Tsuga.

trichocarpa, and Populus tremuloides. small flakes of the coating were detached at intersections of cuts, less than 5% of the area affected) and well in the pull-off test (i.e. The Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens) is a member of the pine tree family that is native to the Rocky Mountain regions of North America. Good shaping quality. This small riparian stand is in the Okanogan Mountains of Washington [C.J. Spruce has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is well known for its working properties. The largest tree, the North Joffre Spruce in British Columbia, is 220 cm dbh and 41 m tall. none of which are native to Kentucky). Peattie, Donald Culross. The area experienced a high-severity burn a few years later [C.J. Earle, 2003.08.15]. The bark is loose, scaly and greyish-brown. In the Chilliwack River Valley of British Columbia, P. engelmannii hybridizes with P. sitchensis; the hybrid has not been formally described. LaRoi, G. H. and J. R. Dugle. In areas where their ranges overlap, theyinterbreed and are referred to as interior spruce. Engelmann spruce trees can often live more than 600 years. At the lowest elevation, it is a riparian tree with associates such as Abies grandis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Larix occidentalis, Populus balsamifera subsp. The needles are arranged in all directions on the twigs. A natural finish (clear coat) or a light stain looks the best. It is also used in building construction (framing, sheathing, roofing, sub-flooring), general millwork, interior finishing, boxes and packing cases. (1984) report on work in the Canadian Rockies. It is also a popular choice for Christmas trees! 1993. Sarg. The wood of the two trees cannot be differentiated visually andthere areveryminor differences intheproperties. 1995). Earle, 2003.08.16]. A "skirted" tree in the Medicine Bow Mtns. I have seen this phenomenon at several sites in the Rocky Mountains and also at Cedar Breaks in Utah. Very resistant to impregnation with preservatives. Engelmann spruce and white spruce are found inBCsinterior east of the CoastRange Mountains. Seed cones are yellow to purplish brown and hang from the upper branches. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. This unique color is attributed to the white powder that forms on new young needles. They are whitish-green and foul-smelling when young but become more pleasant smelling with age. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24(2):278-285. Usually straight-grained and fairly fine-textured. Earle, 2004.07.02]. Their papery seed scales are tapered at both ends and have a ragged outer edge. Seedling about 10 cm tall, probably at least 2 years old [C.J. Typically, they only reach 120-150 feet (35-45m). Good staining properties. The area is near sea level and the Fraser Valley, yet comes right out of the heart of the North Cascades. Quartersawn lumber or quarter-sliced veneer: very little. Pollen cones are usually yellow to purplish-brown. Kiln drying inhibits natural staining of the wood, improves its strength and stiffness, enhances its appearance, and increases its resistance to decay and attack by insects. Ecology 65(3):820-823. White spruce saplings are used for snowshoe frames and bows, and the gum is heated to make a glue to fasten skins to bows and arrowheads to shafts. White spruce is a medium-sized tree with a fairly even conical crown and branches that often extend to the ground. . In Washington and Oregon, it is mostly limited to the subalpine forests on the eastern side of the Cascades, with just a few, but some of the biggest in the Olympic Mountains. Distribution: Engelmann Spruce is native to British Columbia and Alberta, south to Oregon, Arizona and New Mexico. 2:212. Developed by Forestry Innovation Investment, naturally:wood is a comprehensive information resource promoting British Columbia as a global supplier of quality, environmentally-responsible forest products from sustainably-managed forests. Recommended planer settings: 12 or 20 hook angle and 20 kmpi (knife marks per inch). The tree has a mature height of around 70 to 80 feet. White spruce can grow to 40metresand Engelmann spruce to 50metres. In krummholz, even within a single shoot, sharply contrasting differences develop in winter between leeward needles that show only small seasonal decreases in water content, and windward needles that dry out and die. Ecology Diagnostic Characters:Engelmann Spruce can be distinguished from Sitka Spruce by its 4-sided needles that can be felt when rolled between your fingers. Habitat: Engelmann Spruce is shade tolerant and will grow in a forest understory until a disturbance allows it to replace the canopy species. A systematic and genecological study of Picea glauca and P. engelmannii, using paper chromatography of needle extracts. In winter windward needles dry out, become bleached, and are eventually shed. All three species (P. engelmannii, glauca, and sitchensis) hybridize in a zone in the interior Skeena River valley in British Columbia (Sutton et al. Earle, 2006.07.03]. Buds orange-brown, 3-6 mm, apex rounded. It is well adapted for this niche due to its tolerance of very wet soils and low temperatures (cold air drainage being a factor in many mountain valleys) and its relative intolerance for fire: riparian forests are seldom burned. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Hardy to USDA Zone 7 Found along the Pacific Coast from Alaska (its State Tree) to California, In the Willamette Valley, aphid-like adelgids produce. Natives did not use it much either, because it was not near where they lived or hunted. Select Structural, #2 and better, and studgrades are the most common grades produced. A natural history of western trees. Earle, 2006.07.01]. 2n=24 (Taylor 1993). Luckman (Brown et al.

Tree FCC 23 in central Colorado had a crossdated age of 911 years (Brown et al. Seed cones are light brown to purplish and hang from the upper branches. As a result, the entire plant slowly moves downwind, leaving a trail of dead wood. **Use of articles and photos on this site is permitted for educational purposes only. 1980. While knots can sometimes be a problem, the wood can be sawn cleanly, with sharp cutting edges. Both species are also used for specialty products including musical instruments. Two subspecies, engelmannii (described here) and mexicana. Forest dynamics in a forest-tundra ecotone, Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming. Earle, 2000.07.21]. Earle, 2015.07.05]. Growth: The largest Engelmann Spruce is along the North Cascade Highway and is over 220 feet (67m) tall! Common defect: torn out grain.

Pale silvery-yellow to pale brownish-white, wood is satiny or lustrous. B. . This hybrid may occur elsewhere, where the species' ranges are contiguous (such as the Federation Forest/Crystal Mountain area of Washington) but has not been seen yet (email, Robert Van Pelt, 1999.07.22). Soil temperatures fluctuate widely beneath tundra vegetation in the neighborhood of krummholz plants, whereas under forest variations are small and there is a prolonged period in spring when they remain within 0.6$^{\circ}$C (1$^{\circ}$F) of freezing point. Sutton, B. C. S., S. C. Pritchard, J. R. Gawley, C. H. Newton, and G. K. Kiss. Ecology publishes articles that report on the basic elements of ecological research. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the worlds most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. A tree named the Easy Pass Tower growing along the North Cascades Highway (Washington Route 20) near the Easy Pass Trailhead is 67.7 m tall and 169 cm dbh (Robert Van Pelt e-mail 2004.02.04).

): Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. Marr, John W. 1977. Wetland designation: FAC, Facultative, it is equally likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands. I believe this was from a living tree collected in the late 1980s or early 1990s. Western Maidenhair Fern, Adiantum aleuticum. Rates of treeisland migration, Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA. 1993. The hybrid with P. glauca to form Albert or interior spruce, P. albertiana S. Br. Needles stiff, 15-25 mm, on all sides of stem but parted on the underside of horizontal shoots, 4-sided but somewhat flattened (not square in cross-section and. 1983. 1968. of Wyoming. Needles are attached to the branch by a small peg-like structure called sterigmata. The journal publishes a broad array of research that includes a rapidly expanding envelope of subject matter, techniques, approaches, and concepts: paleoecology through present-day phenomena; evolutionary, population, physiological, community, and ecosystem ecology, as well as biogeochemistry; inclusive of descriptive, comparative, experimental, mathematical, statistical, and interdisciplinary approaches. St. Louis Acad. nov. Trans. Prefers a moist to wet, sandy soil and cool, moist air (e.g., coastal fog belt). The background forest, all the way to the horizon, consists almost exclusively of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii [C.J. Engelmann spruce wood is slightly denser, harder and stronger, but the differences are very minor. Cuttings from current years growth, with a heel of older wood, is most successful when treated with 3000ppm IBA, and stuck into sand. Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds. Taylor, R. J. and T. F. Patterson. It is used to make softwood plywood, medium-density fibreboard (MDF), paperboard and felt.

Krummholz growth forms of spruce arise through death of needles and shoots exposed to the prevailing westerly winds.

Louisville Plants That Are Most Easily Confused With This One: Other forms of spruce (Engelmann Spruce, White Spruce, etc. There are several dwarf selections of Sitka spruce, including: Oregon State Univ. Performs very well in the tape test (i.e. Engelmann spruce is a medium- to large-sized tree that is straight and can reach 50 metres tall and one metre in diameter. Despite being over a century old, they are generally accurate, and are illustrated with some remarkable photographs and lithographs. Influence of wind exposure on needle desiccation and mortality for timberline conifers in Wyoming, USA. Distribution of Engelmann Spruce from USGS ( Atlas of United States Trees by Elbert L. Little, Jr. ). Sci. Sapwood is not usually distinguishable from heartwood. Get acquainted with the most commonly produced and exported lumber grades in boards and structural dimension lumber from BCs interior softwood species. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Arctic and Alpine Research 15(1):127-135. 1984. Louis.) Replenishment of water in needles during winter is probably from water stored in sapwood above the snow pack, since sapwood beneath the snow pack remains frozen in both forest and krummholz. Ecological Monographs 22(2):69-91. In democratic spirit, specimens have come from states throughout the species' range. Living seven-hundred-year-old Picea engelmannii and Pinus albicaulis in the Canadian Rockies. Engelmann spruce has been the second most popular selection for the U.S. Capitol Christmas tree, being used 11 times (as of 2020) since the tradition began in 1964. Spruce lumber is dried according to end-use and customer specifications. This series of volumes, privately printed, provides some of the most engaging descriptions of conifers ever published. 2022 naturally:wood and Forestry Innovation Investment. campus: large trees northwest of Furman Hall. It usually grows in pure stands but is a major component of mixed stands, generally with trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, tamarack, black spruce, jack pine, lodgepole pine, subalpine fir and Douglas-fir. Cross Section of Younger Stem: Roundish, Stem (or Trunk) Diameter: More Than The Diameter of a Coffee-Mug, Produces Brownish Bark? Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. The blue spruce was adopted as the official state tree of Colorado by vote of the state's school children on April 15, 1892. At subalpine elevations, P. engelmannii is one of the two codominants, along with Abies lasiocarpa, of the spruce-fir forest type described by Oosting and Reed (1952); this forest accounts for the majority of the species' distribution, especially in the Rocky Mountains. Biosystematics of Mexican spruce species and populations. Spruce has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is well known for its workingproperties. Very good resistance to splitting. Emphasis is placed on concise, clear articles documenting important ecological phenomena.

Also, a crossdated age of 760 years for a specimen from near Peyto Glacier in Alberta collected by B.H. Br.) Twigs stout, yellow-brown, finely pubescent, occasionally glabrous.

They also form a dominant forest type in eastern North Cascades National Park and the Pasayten Wilderness in Washington. The foliage shows some frost damage from the prior winter. Clears,shop lumber andmouldingstock are most common,although manypotential appearance grades can be produced. The seed scales have a smooth, rounded outer edge. The wood glues moderately easily, has moderate nail and screwholding ability, and takes a good finish. Select the purchase Earle, 2003.07.04]. Taxon 29 (4): 421-469. Propagation requirements Stored seeds should not be allowed to dry out. Certain needles, instead of becoming bleached during winter, turn brown and dry out in early spring. This species is frequently harvested for timber and is moderately popular for soundboards of stringed instruments. Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm., sp. Oosting, H. J., and J. F. Reed. This branch on a tree high in the Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyoming is covered with young, pollen-speckled seed cones and ripe pollen cones [C.J. Engelmann spruce is the dominant tree at timberline in the Front Range at approximately 3,350 m elevation; it occurs as krummholz in the forest-tundra ecotone up to about 3,500 m, and occasional individuals are found in the tundra up to 3,730 m. Temperatures decrease with increasing altitude above timberline, whereas wind velocity increases, especially during winter. the result of a white powder deposited on the needles. nud.]. Earle, 2006.07.04]. White spruce is soft but firm, and moderately light in weight. White spruce can live close to 300 years. Best when using light-coloured waxes (e.g. Elwes and Henry 1906-1913 at the Biodiversity Heritage Library. These needles are 4-sided and have a very sharp point. engelmannii (Taylor 1993): There are two hybrids, or nothospecies, where P. engelmannii overlaps with related spruces. It is relatively easy to work, with good machiningqualities. It is concluded that though the position of timberline is correlated with summer temperatures, dry winter winds are the immediate, though probably not the ultimate, cause of the krummholz growth forms in the forest-tundra ecotone. Common shaping defects in the order of frequency: splintering at the corner, rough end-grain, fuzzy grain, raised grain, and torn grain. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. The Krummholz Zone is the area characterized by these dwarfed and twisted trees just below the Alpine Zone. Earle, 2017.08.19]. (syn. Although they only treat species cultivated in the U.K. and Ireland, and the taxonomy is a bit dated, still these accounts are thorough, treating such topics as species description, range, varieties, exceptionally old or tall specimens, remarkable trees, and cultivation. Engelmann, the editor of the Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Science, published Parry's letter and later in the same volume (Engelmann 1863) provided the species with a proper botanical description, and placed it in the correct genus. *All photographs on this site were taken by Dana, Edmund or Sky Bressette unless otherwise noted. Wiley has partnerships with many of the worlds leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. Canadian Journal of Botany 46:649-687. Bark gray to reddish brown. The needles are four-sided, sharp and stiff and are arranged spirally on the twigs. White spruce and Engelmann spruce are part of the SPF (spruce-pine-fir) species group along with lodgepole pine and subalpine fir. Knigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books. The shoots are pubescent and the leaves slightly longer (1.5-2 cm, vs. 0.8-1.3 cm for P. glauca) (Farjon 1990).

Cuttings may be taken from June to October. Earle, 2006.07.01]. Spruce dries faster than pine and is not adversely affected by severe high-temperature schedules. Virgin sprucefir of the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming. Sci. Subscribe for the latest wood projects, developments, tools and research. All rights reserved. Seed cones on a tree typically become fertile before the pollen cones, as a defense against self-fertilization [C.J.

They are deep bluish-green with two white bands on both the upper and lower surfaces. 1995, cited in RMTRR 2006). Shade foliage in P. engelmannii is not 2-ranked, but assumes this "brushed" appearance in contrast to the morphology of sun foliage shown in the above photo [C.J. WTU Herbarium Image Collection, Plants of Washington, Burke Museum, E-Flora BC, Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia, USDA Forest Service Fire effects information system, Virginia Tech Fact Sheet+ Landowner Fact Sheet, Native Plants Network, Propagation Protocol Database, Native American Ethnobotany, University of Michigan, Dearborn.