No health issues, defined as excessively loose stools, vomiting, or abnormalities documented by keepers, were noted during the duration of the experiment. In conclusion, offering of a pig head as EE increased large cat activity compared to inedible enrichment items and increased activity was sustained 24 hrs post pig head offering (Post Enrichment). In the wild, a female cheetah with cubs will spend approximately 40% of her time searching, capturing, and consuming prey [2], and Amur tigers burn nearly 700 kcals daily from hunting [12]. This also includes chicken meal. 66BX Enterprise, St. Louis, MO), and then passed twice through a Hobart 52 grinder with a 5-mm die (model number 4046; Hobart Corporation, Troy, OH) for homogenization. Animal care and husbandry protocols were approved for the current study by Omahas Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquariums (Omaha) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) and Iowa State Universitys Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Time to approach the pig head began when the cats nose broke the door barrier and ended when the cat first investigated the pig head. In addition to providing the salary support for CLM throughout the study duration, the zoo also contributed animals for the study and keeper time for accomplishing the data collection. Yes However, if the head lost 800 g, the cat likely consumed 700 g of the head weight. Blank Park Zoo also provided access to animals and keeper time for accomplishing the data collection. Environmental enrichment devices or modifications should be biologically relevant to the animal, maintain novelty, and not be detrimental to their health [14,15]. Yes Therefore, stereotypic behaviors such as pacing were not under direct evaluation, however, should be a consideration for subsequent studies. Each head still contained the brain, eyes, teeth, bone, as well as some muscle and fat. There were 338.5 g of fat and 658.0 g of meat (including eyes) removed from the skull. However, further studies should consider intrinsic losses at varying temperatures. Future work should also evaluate nutrient composition of individual pig head components such as meat, fat, bone, eyes, and brain. Project administration, A biologically relevant cat EE device could be food presented in a natural form such as whole prey or whole carcass by-products. Also by law, these by-products have to be digestible to humans too. Fecal scoring was conducted daily when orts were collected and were visually assessed on a five-point scale of: 1 = hard, dry pellets; 2 = dry, well-formed; 3 = soft, moist, formed; 4 = soft, unformed; 5 = watery liquid [35]. Descriptively, on Enrichment day, cats interacted with the pig head approximately 98% more compared to Baseline and Post Enrichment days when the cats were offered the typical zoo enrichment items. Thus, ME calculations for this study were calculated using unmodified Atwater values as the pig head was raw. Just like the others, fish by-products are parts from fish but this time it includes bones, eyes, and entire heads. Since fish can be digested almost entirely, everything is typically included in pet foods when it comes to fish by-products. Software, Decreased activity during week 4 was likely due to temperature as, on average, temperature was 4.8C higher in week 4 (27.1C) compared to other weeks (23.0, 25.1, and 22.3C in weeks 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Temperature and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at each study location every 10 min during the study using HOBO sensors (HOBO Model H08-003-02, Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA)., Editor: Juan J. Loor, University of Illinois, UNITED STATES, Received: April 6, 2018; Accepted: July 27, 2018; Published: September 12, 2018. Precise nutrition for cats of all ages, sizes, and breeds. USDAs Food Safety and Inspection Service, 10 Reasons Ragdoll Cats Are The Perfect Breed. Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America, Roles Orts were recorded for each observation day the morning following observations (i.e. The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) defines by-products as secondary products produced in addition to the principal product.1 These can be both plant or animal based, and range from corn meal and beet pulp to organs, fish oils, and poultry proteins can include organ meat. Enrichment that considers the natural history and inherent interest and nature of an animal is said to be biologically relevant [45,46]. Likewise, GE intakes were variable and ranged from 151.3 to 2756.8 and ME ranged from 130.6 to 2379.4 kcals (Table 8). Zoo caregivers have implemented environmental enrichment (EE) devices with the aim of increasing positive species-specific foraging behaviors and increased activity to improve welfare. I know this sounds a bit gross, but have you considered how your cat would eat if they were wild? The lower jaw and snout had been removed during processing. Determination of fat and meat was made by the person separating the components, with white substance separated as fat and red being meat. The best approach to take when buying your beloved cat their food is to understand what goes in it and if it is suitable for your cats specific needs. Fat concentrations were determined by hexane extraction ((Method 991.36) [37]). Temperature and enclosure size were not significant covariates in any measures of behavior and RH was significant (P = 0.003) as a quadratic covariate only in total active and inactive behaviors. These are not the only nutrients to be taken from by-products. However, the fiber assays utilized were developed to capture plant-based fibers and likely do not accurately account for animal-based components. In addition, Carnivore Essentials provided funding for nutritional analyses of pork by-products evaluated in the study and they also provided the pork by-products through an in-kind donation. In the current study, there was nearly a 250 g difference in minimum and maximum protein intake and more than a 2500 kcal difference in GE intake. At Royal Canin, every single ingredient listed on our packaging is included for a specific purpose, determined by the high-quality nutrients they provide for cats and dogs. Future work should assess direct influence of temperature and RH on cat activity and diet consumption. I encourage everyone to research each brand thoroughly before making a decision on what is best to feed your cat. Writing review & editing, Affiliation document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); If you would like to receive emails about new articles and the occasional deal, enter your email address below! PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, One trainer with previous large cat behavioral experience was responsible for training prior to study commencement as described by Caro et al. Just because a cat enjoys what you feed them it doesnt make it a healthy choice for them! Calcium and phosphorus concentrations was 13.7 and 6.6% DM, respectively, indicating a calcium to phosphorus ratio of 2:1. One sensor was placed outdoors in the shade, under an awning, approximately 5 m from the ground. Pig heads were offered at same time as standard diet and normal zoo enrichment devices were removed on Enrichment days to evaluate behaviors and use of the pig head directly compared to normal devices. Competing interests: I have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: CLM currently is an employee of Omahas Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium and was an employee during the experiment. We also thank animal care staff at each zoo for facilities and use of their animals and Iowa State University for use of laboratories and personnel for guidance. To see the laws and regulations for pet food, read The Code of Federal Regulations under Title 9. On Enrichment days, active behaviors were 55.7% higher compared to baseline and 26.4% higher compared to Post Enrichment days respectively (p<0.0001). Number of location section changes was greater (P<0.05) in week 3 (8.81.9) compared to weeks 2 (6.71.5) and 4 (6.0 1.4) but was not statistically different (P = 0.14) from week 1 (7.21.6). This affiliation with Omahas Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium does not alter the authors adherence to all PLOS ONE polices on sharing data and materials. If calculated metabolizable energy (ME) is of interest, Atwater and modified Atwater factors could be used to predict estimates of ME. CJI was an employee of Iowa State University as a graduate student during the experiment; however, her annual stipend was supported through funding provided by Carnivore Essentials. Grains can provide cats and dogs with nutrients and energy that are essential for their healththis article explores how they form part of a complete and balanced diet for your pet. This was done via the following equation: actual intake = (head weight loss (g))(starting head weight (g) * % intrinsic loss). Meat-to-bone and fat-to-bone ratios were determined by manually separating meat and fat from the skull bone of one 3.5 kg skull using hand-held knives. Similar research is warranted in other carnivore species to determine if results are similar across species and with the use of various pork by-products as enrichment items. Higher Post Enrichment activity compared to Baseline days could likely be attributed to more observations of locomotion (17.4% increase), interaction with normal zoo enrichment devices (72.2% increase), and diet interest (60.0% increase). It should be stated, however, that the current study did not assess for stereotypic behaviors directly and this should be assessed in future studies to determine influence of pig head provision on stereotypies. In this study, on Enrichment days, cats engaged in more active behaviors and postures suggesting that offering a pig head as enrichment was successful at increasing species-specific behaviors compared to the typical enrichment devices provided by the zoo on Baseline- and Post Enrichment days. Learn how by-products in nutritionally balanced pet food can benefit your cat or dog. Offering biologically relevant enrichment may stimulate species-specific behavior [47,48] reduce stress [49,50] and maintain or improve welfare. No cats in this study had previously been exposed to a pig head based on records and zoo caregiver interviews. A binomial distribution was used in evaluation of active, inactive, and other behaviors and postures while Poisson distribution was utilized in the evaluation of location changes and gamma distribution was used in the evaluation of head weight loss and time to approach. high-quality nutrients that are essential. While many creative and unique environmental enrichment devices have been developed for managed, large exotic cats, relatively little is known about how these tools impact cats both behaviorally and nutritionally. The Ca:P ratio of pig heads was 2.1:1, which is close to suggested ideal intakes for cats (2:1) [53]. We thank Sustainable Swine Resources for financial support and pig heads to conduct the study. Each Royal Canin formula has been created to deliver nutrition tailored to your pets needs depending on their breed, age, lifestyle, or sensitivities. More active large cats have also been shown to increase zoo visitor interest and attention [52]. Pig heads were removed from the exhibit between 0730 and 0900 on Post Enrichment days, 24 hr after initial offering, and weighed immediately. While these diets have been formulated to meet cat nutrient requirements [1], they do not fulfil other non-nutritive requirements. Baseline observations took place on Monday morning with orts and fecal scores recorded on Tuesday morning). Unconsumed diets (orts) were collected, weighed, and recorded daily by zoo caregivers or a trained study observer. Lying was 22.1% higher on Baseline compared to Enrichment days and sitting was 64.1% higher on Baseline compared to both Enrichment and Post Enrichment days (Table 6). In the past three decades, a reluctance to feed raw pork stemmed from concerns associated with Trichinae and pseudorabies [17,18]. Methodology, Roles This may warrant further investigation, perhaps across seasons, as few previous studies have evaluated standard diet consumption with the offering of dietary enrichment. Citation: Iske CJ, Morris CL, Colpoys JD, Kappen KL, Iennarella CA, Johnson AK (2018) Nutrient evaluation of a pork by-product and its use as environmental enrichment for managed large exotic cats. In fact, fewer orts on Enrichment and Post Enrichment days compared to Baseline indicated higher consumption. There were no differences in number of location section changes between Baseline, Enrichment, or Post Enrichment days (p = 0.67). Ratios of meat and fat to bone should also be determined in pig heads of various weights in future studies to assess ratio differences in head size. Averages are presented to provide estimates of consumption and intake, but it is also important to look at minimum and maximum intakes per individual animal. Cheryl L. Morris, Copyright: 2018 Iske et al. Additionally, recent studies feeding commercially available raw pork diets have found no clinical symptoms when fed to exotic cats [27,28]. If you have a cat who has protein allergies, you will need to pay attention to the three kinds of by-products and what is actually in them. Consumption of a pig head requires time and effort; therefore, may alter the cats activity budget. flavoured whiskas Three pig heads were collectively passed twice through a mechanical grinder (Buffalo No. Grinding and freeze drying were conducted at Iowa State University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. If your cat has an allergy to chicken, you will want to avoid any kind of food with this on the label. In the current study, objectives were to evaluate differences in overall active and inactive behaviors as this is the first study to evaluate the use of a pig head as EE. Cats were housed individually and fed their normal amount and type of raw meat diet, without fasting days, and all were cared for by zoo caregivers (Table 2). Average RH (SD) averaged 71.410.3, 62.28.1, and 61.04.1% on Baseline, Enrichment, and Post Enrichment days, respectively, and 68.611.2, 63.65.9, 57.64.3, and 69.18.7% for weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Heads were analyzed for dry matter (DM) (Method 934.01) and organic matter (OM ((Method 942.05) [36]). No, Is the Subject Area "Weight loss" applicable to this article? Five exotic cats were used; four located at Omahas Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium, Omaha, Nebraska (Omaha) and one at Blank Park Zoo in Des Moines, Iowa (Blank Park) (Table 1). We thank Sustainable Swine Resources for financial support and pig heads to conduct the study. For example, if a 4.3 kg head only lost 100 g after being offered to a cat, it is likely due to intrinsic losses. Insignificant variables were removed from the final model. Omahas Henry Doorly Zoo & Aquarium provided her salary throughout the experiment, in addition to access to animals used in the study and animal keeper time required to conduct the data collection.

Minimum and maximum dry matter intakes ranged from 37.0 to 647.0 g/d. Understanding by-products on pet food labels.,,,,,, One min instantaneous scan sample intervals were used to record behavior via live observations [29]. Calculations of nutrient intakes can be used to adjust regular diet volumes based on degree of enrichment item consumption by an animal. Pig heads contained 48.1% dry matter, and 38.4, 22.0, 13.5, and 3.4% CP, fat, CF, and TDF, respectively, on a dry matter basis. Cats were released from back-holding quarters each morning between 0730 and 0900. Pork by-products may provide environmental enrichment to mitigate these challenges. If your cat has a history with medical issues involving the liver, kidneys, or immune system then it is best to keep them out of their diet entirely. Cats had previously been offered whole prey intermittently, but was not part of their daily diet during the current study. Percent orts were calculated by dividing grams of orts by total diet offered (wet weight) and dividing by 100. In addition, further research with these enrichment items may also be conducted to directly address their effects on stereotypies in animals known to display them and effect of varying predictability (placement and timing of offering). Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Macronutrient and energy digestibility was not evaluated in this study so gross energy can provide respective references. Active behaviors were 39.8% higher on Post Enrichment compared to Baseline days (p<0.0001). Descriptively, locomotion and laying were the most frequently observed postures across all treatment days and weeks (approximately 80% of the total average time). Browse the full range of products and discover how we can help your pet enjoy the best health possible. However, this may not be the case. Additionally, fiber can function as a pre-biotic, appetite regulator, and produce valuable short-chain fatty acids that provide energy for the large intestine [55]. This can be dead or dying animals, fish, or eggs. If you are ever uncertain about ingredients in your pet food, or would like to know more about how a cat or dogs diets should be tailored to address their unique needs, speak to your veterinarian. Average temperatures (SD) were 26.01.4, 24.43.3, and 22.62.6C for Baseline, Enrichment, and Post Enrichment days, respectively, and 23.02.9, 25.11.8, 22.32.0, and 27.12.0C for weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Yes These authors also contributed equally to this work. Poultry by-products are what the name implies, coming from turkey and/or chicken. By-products in cat and dog food can provide important nutrients for your pet. For ease of tracking during observation, landmarks (logs, bricks, trees, rocks, etc.) Total active behaviors were highest (p<0.0001) in week 3 and lowest (p<0.0001) in week 4 with differences as high as 64.5% seen among weeks. This doesnt mean byproducts are unsafe or lack nutritionthey just arent part of the original primary products. It is important to note that if animals routinely receive enrichment items, other dietary items should be adjusted or formulated accordingly to account for nutrients coming from these items to prevent obesity, nutrient imbalance, or over nutrition. Conceptualization, Temperature, RH, and enclosure size were not significant covariates in head weight loss. More expensive brands may include by-products from pheasants, ducks, or quail. These may include appetitive behaviors (locating, capturing, and killing prey), feeding process psychology (palatability and physical characteristics) and oral health [24]. Entire pooled samples were then frozen and freeze dried for 4 days (vacuum/freezer: Uni-Trap by Cenco Model #10100; vacuum chamber: Virtis Model #10-104-LD). In fact, by 2004 all 50 US states were considered eradicated of pseudorabies, though it persists in some feral hogs [24]. Cats may fill this extra time by increasing inactive behaviors [13]. The nutritional profile is provided by the entire diet, and not just the first ingredient listed on the pet food label. Yes Ideally, you want to avoid this by-product when possible. 1 Yes Weekly orts were calculated as average Baseline, Enrichment, and Post Enrichment day orts within each week. Giving a pig head as an enrichment device did not result in a detrimental effect on raw diet intake.

These diets typically are nutritionally complete, but lack physical properties characteristic of whole prey. Omahas Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America, Roles No, Is the Subject Area "Nutrients" applicable to this article? The five trainee observers independently reviewed and scored the same three videos using the same recording rule. Is the Subject Area "Swine" applicable to this article? Investigation, Pig heads consisted of: DM: 48.5%; OM: 60.7%; CP: 38.4%; fat: 22.0%; CF: 13.5%; TDF: 3.4%; GE: 4.1 kcal/g DM. Cayla J. Iske, On average 266.1 g of dry matter from pig heads was consumed daily consisting of 161.5, 102.2, 58.6, and 9.2 g OM, CP, fat, and fiber (TDF), respectively. For example, liver can provide iron, B vitamins (especially B12) and vitamin A. It is more important that you know where the meat in your cats food is coming from and how it is sourced. Starting weights ranged from 2776.0 to 4495.1 g. Head weight loss (g) (SE) did not differ over the four weeks of study (543.4220.9, 587.6220.9, 555.1223.9, and 700.3223.9, respectively; p = 0.37). Only 90 cases of Trichinae were reported by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) between 2008 and 2012 and of those only 24% of cases were due to raw pork [25] and freezing at 20C for 8 minutes or for 64 minutes at 15C will kill Trichinae, indicating these two concerns are very low risk from pork sourced from US swine operations and frozen prior to feeding [26]. When they hunt and catch prey, they focus on organ meats first as they offer the most moisture content and nutrients followed by the meat/flesh, and lastly the muscle and soft bone tissue. The experimental design was a complete randomized design. Carbohydrate concentrations of diets were calculated by difference as nitrogen free extract (NFE) using the following equation (DMB): (100 (% ash + % CP + % fat + % TDF). Yes Formal analysis, No, Is the Subject Area "Animal behavior" applicable to this article? Potential consumption of enrichment items that could alter overall nutrient intake of an animal requires evaluation. By-products can also contain glucosamine, which can support for mobility and joints in cats and dogs. After freeze drying, samples were ground through a 2-mm screen (Wiley mill, model 3383-L10, Thomas Scientific, Swedesboro, NJ) and analyzed for chemical composition. Depending on the quality, 1 to 3 meals a week is best. They did not contribute to study design, data collection or analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. No matter what any company or person has told you, by law, your pets food CANNOT contain brains, feet, or beaks. Carnivore Essentials was a commercial feed manufacturer and provided funding to support the annual salary of CJI along with funding to complete laboratory analyses conducted. All data were evaluated for a normal distribution before analysis by using the UNIVARIATE procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Most commercial cat foods found in pet stores that contain poultry by-products are almost always from chickens. Our nutrient-led approach allows us to precisely combine by-products and other raw materials to deliver a nutritional profile tailored to the breed, the age, or even any potential health conditions of your cat or dog. Diet and fecal scores were not negatively affected by consumption of the pig head and no clinical signs were observed in any cats involved in this study. Crude and total dietary fiber was low in pig heads. When providing edible enrichment, nutritional contribution should always be considered.

Nutrient composition of analyzed heads is presented in Table 7. When meat is being used on a label for cat food, it is referring to cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. Methodology, Data curation, Fish, in general, should make up less than 25% of your cats overall diet and should never be given daily. At Royal Canin, we focus our efforts on understanding the unique needs of cats and dogs. Starting and ending weights of heads used to determine intrinsic weight loss averaged 3530.5 and 3450.7 g, respectively, indicating an average intrinsic weight loss of 2.3% in 24 hr. consumption) in enrichment items, and perhaps preferential consumption of certain parts of enrichment items (i.e. canin canned gravy slices gelatin powdered Nutrient intake from consuming the heads was highly variable. This delineation of raw materials is a common practice. Weeks consists of one Baseline (normal zoo enrichment devices), one Enrichment (pig head), and one Post Enrichment (normal zoo enrichment devices) day. Recently, the concept of animal fiber (hair, bones, cartilage, etc.) The experiment was conducted from June 30 to July 23, 2014., Interaction with the pig head did not decrease over the four-week study, with more pig head interaction occurring in weeks 3 and 4 (7.8 and 6.6%, respectively) than in weeks 1 and 2 (5.7 and 4.6%, respectively; Table 6). Gross and metabolizable energy average intakes were 1088.2 and 939.2 kcal/d, respectively. Cats and dogs require a balance of precise nutrients based on specific amounts of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and fats, among others. Formal analysis, Each head was individually weighed to the nearest 0.1g (Mettler Toledo XP8001M Precision Balance, Columbus, OH) 24 hr prior to placement in the housing enclosure. For cats with sensitive digestive systems and/or food allergies, you may want to avoid certain by-products or all by-products to be on the safe side. Cats were released from section 1 (defined as the first section that each cat had access to upon release from back holding quarters; (Fig 1)). There are three types of by-products you will see listed as ingredients which include poultry by-products, meat by-products, and fish by-products. A pig head must be manipulated and masticated to be consumed and is in a form that might be found by a cat in the wild, making it a biologically relevant EE. Chemical analyses were conducted in the Nutrition laboratory at Omahas Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium unless otherwise noted. Inter-observer reliability testing occurred at Omaha or the Animal Behavior and Well-Being laboratory at Iowa State University. Nutrient intakes by cats, from head consumption only, were calculated based on macronutrient composition of head, head weight loss, and intrinsic losses. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to: 1) determine if a pig head could be a biologically relevant EE device for large cats managed in zoological settings and 2) to evaluate pig heads for chemical composition for nutrient intake calculations. There were three treatment days; Baseline (24 hr prior to the environmental enrichment device being placed into the housing enclosure but cats had access to normal zoo enrichment devices), Enrichment (the cat had access to the pig head environmental enrichment device in the housing enclosure but not the normal zoo enrichment devices) and Post Enrichment (after the pig head environmental enrichment device was removed from the housing enclosure but cats had access to normal zoo enrichment devices). Mineral analyses were conducted by Midwest Laboratories (Omaha, NE; Method 985.01) [42]; (MWL ME PROC 29)]. cat trout liver duck wet