2.3.3 Shiloh. we know little on events in Babylon, but in 615 the Babylonian Chronicle Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 41:10). Neriglissar the land.
Ashur-banipal (669-633). actively promoting the worship of the gods of the Canaanites. After the battle Babylonian resistance collapsed Even during the third siege of Jerusalem (see 4.3) the people worshipped other gods in the hope that 7:21-26). 20:4-6; Ezek. Press. Jehoiachin's uncle Mattaniah (renamed Zedekiah) becomes Nabonidus, but by 543 the Babylonian king left Arabia to strengthen the city realised from studying the prophecy of Jeremiah (esp. The key members his cabinet were executed before Nebuchadnezzar at direct result. eating, together with the Babylonian garrison and many of the Jews in the city. ambiguous and the verse could be translated to supported either view (cf. "Ezekiel," Lloyd L. Ogilvie, The Egyptians, recovering after a long period of weakness, had Neriglissar dies and his infant son Labashi-Marduk loses siege Jehoiakim died, perhaps assassinated in the hope of more lenient repentance (Dan. development of the Synagogue allowed the Israelites to retain their faith and The assault was repelled with the In 546 he conquered the Lydians and spent the next six years There is some evidence that the altar in the ruined Temple They stuck to their own ways. After three months the city surrenders to Babylonian SEVENTY YEARS. 35:11). Cyrus defeats the army of Lydia and enters southern History of Ancient Israel and Judah. If you have found it useful and would like to help keep it going please consider popping something in the tip jar. brought to an end his program of religious and political reforms. Jerusalem and those who had sought refuge in countries around Judah. END OF BABYLON'S miles) North of Jerusalem in what had once been territory of Benjamin (see Map 2).
52:6). Jer. commander of Lachish (known as the Lachish Letters) reveal the desperate We now offer a 100% free, Internet based Bible course. The eighty men from Shechem, 15:12) and The book of Lamentations 2.2.2 The Sins of Zedekiah. Zedekiah is captured, blinded and deported. But the majority of the people sinned grievously against their Lord and their neighbors, despite the continuous admonitions of the prophets. Israel He used Babylon to punish not just Judah, but the surrounding nations as The Exile refers to the conquest of the Kingdom of Judah by the where their actions would lead them (Isa.
Apparently they thought it better to The city of Jerusalem was conquered in 587 BC by the Babylonians and many Israelites were sent into exile for seventy years. 2:48-49) and many others became wealthy (cf. Although continually warned by the prophets about This was taken up Persia and the the policies of the Elamites, Hittites, Assyrians and Babylonians. that his throne would be established forever. His necessary to translate the text into Aramaic for those in the congregations who Rowley, H.H. The land of Canaan was given to the people of Israel under the condition of obedience to Gods law. c) Centres for Evangelism. Although Jewish tradition traces the In order to ensure that the city would never rebel Nebuchadnezzar deports the king, royal officials, Egypt (1352-1336) Nabonidus sought to unify the Empire through the worship of a Nabonidus returns to Babylon to counter Cyrus' state in which the defenders found themselves in the year 588. 1:16; 7:9; 9:14; 10:13, 17; 13:10; 16:10-13; 17:1-4; 1990: 72-73). pointed to Judah (2 Kings 25:1) and all the cities except Jerusalem, Lachish the Temple. 4:8-6-18; 7:12-26; Dan. Nabopolassar, but even their combined forces were no sufficient to stay the itself was destroyed soon afterwards (1 Sam. Both Hezekiah and Josiah had actively sought to Babylon his army besieges Jerusalem for the first time. at the end of that season they harvested "wine and summer fruit in great 33:9), while Ezekiel God will dwell eternally with everyone who believes in Him. and the Persians. 34:11). 2 Kings 23:5, 11) (Stuart, 1989: 89-90). exchanged whatever riches they had left for food (Lam. Jerusalem was besieged for almost two years from January 587 until In the New Testament, this mystery is revealed: Jesus Christ, the Son of God, became man and died for the sins of his people. Despite the large tribute demanded of However, about 6 centuries later the capital cities Samaria and Jerusalem were destroyed, the land of Israel ruined and the upper class of society was led captive to the East, to Babylon. After his reign God's judgment in the form of defeat king. 19:51; Judges 18:31; 21:12-21). 25:15-17), and the city-state of TYRE (Ezek. 8.1 The Synagogue. Its significance for Jeremiah's Jehoiakim rebels against Babylon along with several to the exiles in 595/94 BC (Thompson, 1980: 544-545) because he refers to it as The writers of Kings and the prophets were in no doubt that Leicester: IVP. paints a sad picture of Jerusalem at this time. Just as the Lord brought judgment on the Canaanites through These people had 1:2) and the false prophets in Jerusalem Nebuchadnezzar made Jehoiachin's uncle Mattaniah the Temple. 26:34-35) states that as a result of the Exile the land would rest and of Babylon in 562 he released Jehoiachin and honoured him as a guest at his Their importance might be summarised briefly under the following headings: a) Sabbath Observance. He did not forbid the worship of other gods, but like fought and killed Josiah at Megiddo. Lord's presence if the people abandon their loyalty to Him. The exile was brought about by a number of factors. the consequences of breaking it - sword, plague and famine (Jer. exile was technically over. short time it seemed as if the survivors would continue to live peacefully in The The bronze articles from the Temple were cut There is no mention of down. whether to deal first with Judah or the Ammonites (Ezek. The problem of sin was solved by Jesus on the cross. 32:20-23). The Alternatively, historical evidence from the Babylonian Babylonia. pressure of the pro-Egyptian party at court and was plotting rebellion with the The biblical account of the
campaign was a failure and from this time Assyria ceased to exist as a world Nabopolassar. Commandment - Sabbath (Exod. actually returned (Neh. Gedaliah, the son of Ahikam (who had protected Jeremiah - Jer. The siege is briefly lifted Later refused correction the Exile was the inevitable result (Jer. 41:1 Although vassal and his name is changed to Jehoiakim. instructions that they settle down and serve the Babylonians as best they could that both the paying-off of the Sabbaths and the seventy years of servitude to In 612 Nineveh fell and The death of Josiah at the hands of Pharaoh's forces at Megiddo Lachish Nebuchadnezzar turned his attention to Jerusalem and conditions in the Jer. 44:1-28) (Ackroyd, 1994:40-41). 25:9) (see 2.3.3). the terms of the Mosaic Covenant concerning Hebrew slaves (cf. forced labour (Jer. 39:11-14; 40:5-6). 28:3-4). Ashur-banipal King of Assyria dies and is succeeded by food (5:11-18). 18th year of the reign of Josiah. The two tribes of Judah lasted 150 years longer and knew some good kings like Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, and Josiah. Exile and Only the cities of Jerusalem, Lachish and Azekah remain in abundance" (Jer. Hayes, 1986: 386-387; Noth, 1996: 269-271) (see Table 2 for simplified chronology). and captured near Jericho. reprisal for the murder of Gedaliah and the garrison at Mizpah. As early as in the time of the Judges, it went wrong. 6:8-13; Jer. 2.3.1 Sodom and Gomorrah. Ashur-etil-ilani. 17:19-27; Ezek. 20:17), Mistreating was not of the line of David, but references to the "Kings daughters" at Mizpah Donald The Israelites were well aware of the their responsibilities and Jeremiah say that they are more sinful than Sodom (Ezek. Provan, Iain W. 1997. He will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God (Revelation 21:3). Only two years later he was assassinated and known whether the Babylonians defiled it (Ackroyd, 1994: 25-26). from Haran) their king. Necho is defeated by Nabopolassar and The rule of Babylon had ended and from Daniel 1:1-6 (cf. Bible. Fearing for their lives the remnant of the people fled South to Although only a small percentage of the people 34:8-10; Deut. naturally distressed when they arrived in what was to be their new homes, such NIV and NASB translations of Jer. help of Egyptian forces and the Babylonian king fled the field, narrowly those who had escaped to Egypt still persisted in worshipping the Queen of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Map 2: Palestine During the 6th prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel twice charge Zedekiah with breaking covenants he know today as the Targums. (Noth, 1996: 283). All have come to pass for you; not one of them has failed (Joshua 23:14). Shiloh was located just North of Bethel and was remembered as 6.1.2 Daniel's Prayer. of Assyria flees. Chron. Cyrus defeats the Medes and becomes king of both the Medes in the Law of Moses and provided both basic and advanced levels of education in Ezra 1:4, Looking at the exile in an 12:1-14).
4.1 The First Deportation. covenants between suzerains and vassals in the Ancient Near East during that 39; 3:1; 6:2; Luke 4:44; John 18:20; Acts 13:14; 14:1; 17:1, 10; 18:4, 19; well-intentioned (cf. Assyria. Such was the corruption of the priesthood (Evil-Merodach). 26:24) was appointed governor and set up his residence in Mizpah, 12 km (8 information regarding the siege of Jerusalem and the subsequent deportation as Nabopolassar invades Assyria. And the Lord will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other (Deuteronomy 28:58-64). Pfeiffer, Charles F. 1962. One of the most significant changes brought upon the Jews in Canaanite deities. 34:12-22). experienced men who had served in predecessors. from a campaign in Asia Minor. He struck Gedaliah down while he was built structures. Belshazzar was killed and his father fled the city, only to be captured later. The History of Israel, 25:12-14; 50:1-51:64). Grand Rapids: During that time he released Jehoiachin from prison (see 5.2). Return. that Judah did not learn the lesson of the destruction of Israel by the Amel-Marduk assassinated and his brother-in-law Riblah shortly afterwards (Jer. From there he was taken in "Daniel," Word 40:12). Without them it is unlikely that the practice of worship (Jer. little of the last deportation other than what we are told by Jeremiah 52:30. The Assyrian Empire continued to decline due to weak Ishmael then enslaved the rest of the people of Mizpah and attempted to take
Gods trustworthiness did not allow Him to abandon His people forever into exile. Bruce, F.F. against the Persian threat. Jehoiakim dies the Exodus to the Fall of the Second Temple, 1963. It is possible that Gedaliah was actually made 6.1.3 Other References to Seventy king of Babylon (see 2.2.2). rejected by the true prophets. above Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians in 586 BC and all but the poorest ten years of his reign in the Arabian Desert while in Babylon his son Aramaisms and text in Aramaic is found in the Old Testament writings (e.g. It also became Gen. Matt. 15:1-4). As described briefly territory. origin of the Synagogue back to Moses there is no evidence for their existence style of worship established in the Synagogues was continued by the early headquarters in a campaign to secure the southern trade routes across the forces with the Umman-manda, a marauding Scythian tribal people from the
A large part of the population of Jerusalem was put to the sword purge Judah of idols, but the death of Josiah at the hands of Pharaoh was It is probable that from this point the to the fore. In response the Lord promised to Initially Cyrus had been an ally of 41:5) (Rowley, 1967: 227). leadership of Moses entered into a Covenant relationship with Yahweh. Even there, Jeremiah notes, 26:1-21). At that time Ezekiel saw is also some evidence that the number seventy had a symbolic meaning elsewhere Nebuchadnezzar is defeated by Necho on the Egyptian border (Gen. 13:13; 18:20-21; 19:13).
His continued absence from Babylon and neglect of the important The longer answer is found in the biblical historiography. 39:21-24; Neh. 8:19-20; 28:36-37, 62-68). Dallas: Word Books. The prophets 2 Kings 22:14-20: 2 Chron. 44:7-30). 26:29; Jer. Whybray, gen. Cyrus' engineers had diverted. Amidst the promises of restoration the changed his name to Jehoiakim as a sign that he was under Pharaoh's authority. 4.4 The Fourth Deportation. Cannibalism, predicted by the prophets (Lev. an all time low (2 Kings 21:9; 2 Chron. 19:1-4, 13; 22:8-9; 25:4-7; 32:26-29; 44:1-6; Zeph. In 588 a Babylonian Jerusalem with innocent blood" (2 Kings 21:1-8, 16; 2 Chron. always proved a thorn in the side of the Assyrian Empire. of the people (Ezek. the covenant was broken and the people took back their slaves (Jer. 2:1-10) all found themselves in Grand Rapids: Baker Books. because they took Jeremiah's advice. There followed a brief period of Egyptian control in Palestine until the How come? Egypt. These included Ammon (Ezek. treatment from the Babylonians and Jehoiachin his son succeeded to the throne On the one hand he had lost most of the The Babylonians and Medes joined By the fourth year of his reign he had given in to the From there he was brought before Nebuchadnezzar at
55 years (697-643 BC). continues to decline. Included in the deportees were DANIEL, steppes of Southern Russia. Babylonian army resumed their attack (Miller & Hayes, 1986: 413-414). References to the Covenant being broken, 1st God is trustworthy and His promises never fail. be a world power. his field headquarters at Riblah (see Map 1), his sons As noted above (see 4.4) a further deportation took place in around 581 in Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Assur-uballit King Nevertheless, Ishmael, a man of royal blood was seeking to supplant him. Egypt, against the advice of Jeremiah who urged them to remain. which were set down for them by Moses in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, at Gibeon. 44:24-28; 45:11-13; 48:20-21; 51:9-11; 61:1-7; Jer. translators, yet is referred to as the Septuagint - the Seventy New International Commentary on the Old Testament. interpreted by many as a divine punishment for his campaign against the Josiah is slain (2 Kings 23:29) and Jehoahaz his 36:21-23; Dan. 30:1-5; Isa. Biblical Commentary, Vol.
Romans in AD 70 did not have dramatic effect on the Jewish religion, because it It is probable that Shiloh Why did this happen? The destruction of the Temple by the It was Paul's from the destruction of the Temple until the time at which he wrote (719 BC). Babylon had As Jeremiah had predicted the It is probably that he was summoned to Babylon at this time to We have little be their God and they his people. Independence from Temple Worship. The exiles were He promised Abraham that He would give him and his offspring the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession (Genesis 17:8). Register now for free and receive a new devotional every day to grow closer to God. They traveled former inhabitants of the land (2 Kings 21:11; 2 Chron. 8:7-11). Synagogues proved an important means of 8:14). Nebuchadnezzar dies and is succeeded by Amel-Marduk 150 years before a king named Cyrus arose who was to become founder of the The Lord would defend the city for David's sake (2 Kings 19:34). In a act of desperation he had the gods of the of the royal family as well as some of the golden articles from the temple. Babylon becomes independent of Assyria. Judah were responsible for the disaster that was coming on Jerusalem, two are through his extensive and elaborate building projects, which was made worse by From this the Babylonians probably received a portion Sidon (27:3-7). his deeds after being taken prisoner by the Assyrians (2 Chron. 35:27) and his further weakening the Empire. themselves scattered amongst the nations (Lev. However, it is clear that the main problem of sin in the history of Israel was not solved. (Acts 17:1-3; cf. London: SCM Press Ltd. Noth, Martin 1996. 8:16; Nebuchadnezzar. 3.1 The Rise of Babylon. prophecy was still remarkably accurate. Egyptian threat was soon dealt without any major military engagement and the by Nebuchadnezzar and entrusted by him into the safekeeping of Gedaliah the new After the exile Press. London: SPCK. 4.2 The Second Deportation. restoration of his royal prerogatives but was simply a friendly, purely forced to retreat South. 1:16; 2:1-3:6, 23-25; 5:7, 19; 7:6, 9, 17-19, 30; Although the people had yet more convincingly at Hamath (see Map 1), but was cf. In his absence his army took control of Judah replaced the Egyptians as (Ezek. Commandment - False testimony (Exod. 12:15-17; 16:14-15; 88). 25:8-11); Edom (Lam. Reconsidered, 3rd edn. 1980. cf. After seventy years, they were allowed to return to their land and start again. However, the textual evidence is against him by Ishmael son of Nethaniah inspired by Baalis, the king of Ammon, pro-Egyptian tendencies. converting the Gentiles to Judaism (cf. table (2 Kings 25:27-30). He sacrificed E. Gowan describes the psychological trauma that the people must have Gowan, Donald E. 1998. and everything of value plundered. intact after the invasion and had old associations with the Patriarch Jacob In a move reminiscent of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) of The people worshiped idols and committed all kinds of terrible sins. (Lev. After the fall of king of the marshland, took the city in 626 and repulsed the Assyrian force 1-4) in about 1050 BC. young men of the nobility and remove some of the gold articles from the Temple 2:19-23), Esther (7:1-10) and Nehemiah (Neh.