License. The World History Encyclopedia logo is a registered trademark. In this time Akkadian came to replace Sumerian as the lingua franca except in sacred services and Akkadian dress, writing, and religious practices infiltrated the customs of the conquered in the region. Further, he undertook land reform and, from what is known, improved upon the empire of his father and brother. According to historical record, Naram-Sin honored the gods, had his own image placed beside theirs in the temples, and was succeeded by his son, Shar-Kali-Sharri who reigned from 2223-2198 BCE. Victory Stele of Naram-SinJan van der Crabben (CC BY-NC-SA). World History Encyclopedia. theme: { The middle chronology, however, is under attack, with various scholars arguing strongly in favor of a low(er) chronology and for various reasons. However, Sargon took this process further, conquering many of the surrounding regions to create an empire that reached westward as far as the Mediterranean Sea and perhaps Cyprus (Kaptara); northward as far as the mountains (a later Hittite text asserts he fought the Hattian king Nurdaggal of Burushanda, well into Anatolia); eastward over Elam; and as far south as Magan (Oman) a region over which he reigned for purportedly 56 years, though only four "year-names" survive. Who was not king? [18] The impact of this climate event on Mesopotamia in general, and on the Akkadian Empire in particular, continues to be hotly debated. interval: 30000, World History Publishing is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom.

Invasions also came from the east, from a people known as the Guti. [47] The location of Armanum is debated: it is sometimes identified with a Syrian kingdom mentioned in the tablets of Ebla as Armi, whose location is also debated; while historian Adelheid Otto identifies it with the Citadel of Bazi at the Tell Banat complex on the Euphrates River between Ebla and Tell Brak,[48][47] others like Wayne Horowitz identify it with Aleppo. Akkad was the primary city in the Akkadian civilization and gave the culture its name. Under Sargon, the ensis generally retained their positions, but were seen more as provincial governors. Farmers used the Sumerian irrigation techniques. Displacing Ur-Zababa, Sargon was crowned king, and he entered upon a career of foreign conquest. What followed was a series of clear successions: all but one of the subsequent rulers was the oldest son of the previous ruler. [70][71] Harvey Weiss has shown that, [A]rchaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. During the Akkadian period, the Akkadian language became the lingua franca of the Middle East, and was officially used for administration, although the Sumerian language remained as a spoken and literary language. She likens Inanna to a great storm bird who swoops down on the lesser gods and sends them fluttering off like surprised bats. [61] Later however, Lugal-ushumgal was succeeded by Puzer-Mama who, as Akkadian power waned, achieved independence from Shar-Kali-Sharri, assuming the title of "King of Lagash" and starting the illustrious Second Dynasty of Lagash. Shu-turul was the last Akkadian emperor. In spite of his spectacular reign, considered the height of the Akkadian Empire, later generations would associate him with The Curse of Agade, a literary text (of the Mesopotamian Naru Literature genre) ascribed to the Third Dynasty of Ur but which could have been written earlier.

A series of roads connected the cities and city-states of the empire. shell: { He consolidated his dominion over his territories by replacing the earlier opposing rulers with noble citizens of Akkad, his native city where loyalty would thus be ensured.[32]. He "sets his spades against its roots, his axes against the foundations until the temple, like a dead soldier, falls prostrate" (Leick, 106). [67] The named kings of Uruk may have been contemporaries of the last kings of Akkad, but in any event could not have been very prominent. document.write(stampdays[ thedate.getDay()] + ", " + stampmonths[ thedate.getMonth()] + " " + thedate.getDate() + ", " + thedate.getFullYear()); As the civilization expanded and came into contact (and conflict) with its neighbors, cities would name a lugal, a kind of monarchical figure who would get to live in a palace-equivalent building and act as the man in charge. The copper Bassetki Statue, cast with the lost wax method, testifies to the high level of skill that craftsmen achieved during the Akkadian period. An Introduction to the Ancient Middle East Even so, the flat country and weather uncertainties made flooding much more unpredictable than in the case of the Nile; serious deluges seem to have been a regular occurrence, requiring constant maintenance of irrigation ditches and drainage systems. As a result, Sumer and Akkad had a surplus of agricultural products but was short of almost everything else, particularly metal ores, timber and building stone, all of which had to be imported. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though the meaning of this term is not precise, and there are earlier Sumerian claimants.[8][9]. Recent studies, however, claim that it was most likely climate change which caused famine and, perhaps, disruption in trade, weakening the empire to the point where the type of invasions and rebellions which, in the past, were crushed, could no longer be dealt with so easily. Ancient Middle East Glossary SeventeenthDynasty, (15001100 BCE)Kidinuid dynastyIgehalkid dynastyUntash-Napirisha, Twenty-first Dynasty of EgyptSmendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II, Twenty-third Dynasty of EgyptHarsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini She has been banished as high priestess from the temple in the city of Ur and from Uruk and exiled to the steppe. Art works were basic and depicted the rulers or the gods (some of whom were thought to be gods). "Akkad." Akkad was the seat of the Akkadian Empire (2334-2218 BCE), the first multi-national political entity in the world, founded by Sargon the Great (r. 2334-2279 BCE) who unified Mesopotamia under his rule and set the model for later Mesopotamian kings to follow or attempt to surpass. Web. var thedate = new Date(); 1-9. Taxes were paid in produce and labour on public walls, including city walls, temples, irrigation canals and waterways, producing huge agricultural surpluses. Both civilizations had their own language and, after the conquest, many people spoke both languages. Despite the success, like his brother he seems to have been assassinated in a palace conspiracy.[42][40]. He also criticizes Weiss for taking Akkadian writings literally to describe certain catastrophic events. He called himself "The anointed priest of Anu" and "the great ensi of Enlil" and his daughter, Enheduanna, was installed as priestess to Nanna at the temple in Ur. 72, no. In large works and small ones such as seals, the degree of realism was considerably increased,[97] but the seals show a "grim world of cruel conflict, of danger and uncertainty, a world in which man is subjected without appeal to the incomprehensible acts of distant and fearful divinities who he must serve but cannot love. The Akkadians used visual arts as a vehicle of ideology. He also undertook great projects in construction throughout the empire and is thought to have ordered the construction of the Ishtar Temple at Nineveh, which was considered a very impressive piece of architecture. Sargon also cleverly placed his daughter, Enheduanna, as High Priestess of Inanna at Ur and, through her, seems to have been able to manipulate religious/cultural affairs from afar. While Lugalzagesi had succeeded in subjugating the cities of Sumer, Sargon was intent on conquering the known world. The Akkadians produced large amounts of foodstuffs and animal products (such as wool) but little else that they needed on a day-to-day basis.

Sargon (or his scribes) claimed that the Akkadian Empire stretched from the Persian Gulf through modern-day Kuwait, Iraq, Jordan, Syria (possibly Lebanon) through the lower part of Asia Minor to the Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus (there is also a claim it stretched as far as Crete in the Aegean). Last modified April 28, 2011. [73], Excavation at Tell Leilan suggests that this site was abandoned soon after the city's massive walls were constructed, its temple rebuilt and its grain production reorganized. [31] Four times he invaded Syria and Canaan, and he spent three years thoroughly subduing the countries of "the west" to unite them with Mesopotamia "into a single empire". background: '#000000', The Victory Stele of Naram-Sin (presently housed in the Louvre) celebrates the victory of the Akkadian monarch over Satuni, king of the Lullubi (a tribe in the Zagros Mountains) and depicts Naram-Sin ascending the mountain, trampling on the bodies of his enemies, in the image of a god. Dalley proposes that these sources may have originally referred to, Stele of Narm-Sn, king of Akkad, celebrating his victory against the Lullubi from Zagros. Tell Brak shrank in size by 75%. However, there are no known year-names or other archaeological evidence verifying any of these later kings of Akkad or Uruk, apart from several artefact referencing king Dudu of Akkad and Shu-turul. Finally, tired of waiting, he draws up his army and marches on Enlil's temple at the Ekur in the city of Nippur which he destroys. World History Encyclopedia, 28 Apr 2011. Naram-Sin campaigned against Magan which also revolted; Naram-Sin "marched against Magan and personally caught Mandannu, its king", where he instated garrisons to protect the main roads. Farmers were recruited into regiments for this work from August to Octobera period of food shortageunder the control of city temple authorities, thus acting as a form of unemployment relief. The figures also became more sculptural and naturalistic. With Naram-Sin, Sargon's grandson, this went further than with Sargon, with the king not only being called "Lord of the Four-Quarters (of the Earth)", but also elevated to the ranks of the dingir (= gods), with his own temple establishment.

Please note that some of these recommendations are listed under our old name, Ancient History Encyclopedia. Little architecture remains. World History Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. As well, once the empire was established, the emperor devolved some of the ruling responsibilities to territorial governors. Their portraits showed them of larger size than mere mortals and at some distance from their retainers. [77][78][79], Richard Zettler has critiqued the drought theory, observing that the chronology of the Akkadian empire is very uncertain and that available evidence is not sufficient to show its economic dependence on the northern areas excavated by Weiss and others. Manishtushu's son and successor, Naram-Sin (22542218 BC), due to vast military conquests, assumed the imperial title "King Naram-Sin, king of the four-quarters" (Lugal Naram-Sn, ar kibrat 'arbaim), the four-quarters as a reference to the entire world. These difficulties broke out again in the reign of his sons, where revolts broke out during the nine-year reign of Rimush (22782270 BC), who fought hard to retain the empire, and was successful until he was assassinated by some of his own courtiers. Flood levels, that had been stable from about 3,000 to 2,600 BC, had started falling, and by the Akkadian period were a half-meter to a meter lower than recorded previously.

}).render().setUser('SocStudies4Kids').start(); The Akkadians were an ancient civilization in Mesopotamia who were a rival of and then a conqueror of the Sumerians. He also boasted of having subjugated the "four-quarters" the lands surrounding Akkad to the north, the south (Sumer), the east (Elam), and the west (Martu). [72] More recent analysis of simulations from the HadCM3 climate model indicate that there was a shift to a more arid climate on a timescale that is consistent with the collapse of the empire.

Twenty-fourth Dynasty of EgyptTefnakht Bakenranef, (Sargonid dynasty)Tiglath-Pileser Shalmaneser Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon Sennacherib Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II, Seleucid Empire: Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes, Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler, discovered in, Map of the Akkadian Empire (brown) and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows), Soldier with sword, naked captives, on the Nasiriyah stele of, Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. (1987), "Women in Public: The Disk of Enheduanna, The Beginning of the Office of En-Priestess, the Weight of the Visual Evidence".

While I was gardener Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and (fifty?) Images of Sargon were erected on the shores of the Mediterranean, in token of his victories, and cities and palaces were built at home with the spoils of the conquered lands. Related Content Utu was the sun god. Akkadian texts later found their way to far-off places, from Egypt (in the Amarna Period) and Anatolia, to Persia (Behistun). Brought from Sippar to Susa among other spoils of war in the 12th century BCE. Shar-Kali-Sharri's reign was difficult from the beginning in that he, too, had to expend a great deal of effort in putting down revolts after his father's death but, unlike his predecessors, seemed to lack the ability to maintain order and was unable to prevent further attacks on the empire from without. [28], One explanation for the end of the Akkadian empire is simply that the Akkadian dynasty could not maintain its political supremacy over other independently powerful city-states. Such attempts led to increased political instability; meanwhile, severe depression occurred to re-establish demographic equilibrium with the less favorable climatic conditions. [20][21], The Akkadian period is generally dated to 23342154 BC (according to the middle chronology). Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. The King of Uruk, Lugalzagesi, had already accomplished this, though on a much smaller scale, under his own rule. He made the ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan (and) the ships from Dilmun tie up alongside the quay of Agade. At 2200 BC, a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. Our publication has been reviewed for educational use by Common Sense Education, Internet Scout, Merlot II, OER Commons and School Library Journal. Manishtusu was succeeded by his son Naram-Sin (also Naram-Suen) who reigned from 2261-2224 BCE. may suggest a tightening of Akkadian control following the Brak 'event', for example, the construction of the heavily fortified 'palace' itself and the apparent introduction of greater numbers of Akkadian as opposed to local officials, perhaps a reflection of unrest in the countryside of the type that often follows some natural catastrophe. She thereby unites the warlike Akkadian Ishtar's qualities to those of the gentler Sumerian goddess of love and fecundity. The brothers of my father loved the hills. Winter, Irene J. Agade was defeated and its kingship carried off to Uruk. Although the city of Akkad has not yet been identified on the ground, it is known from various textual sources. "Akkad."

The Akkadian Period is contemporary with EB IV (in Israel), EB IVA and EJ IV (in Syria), and EB IIIB (in Turkey). He increased trade and, according to his inscriptions, engaged in long-distance trade with Magan and Meluhha (thought to be upper Egypt and the Sudan). height: 200, [19], Excavation at the modern site of Tell Brak has suggested that the Akkadians rebuilt a city ("Brak" or "Nagar") on this site, for use as an administrative center.